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  1. what is norm leukocyte count
  2. what is low neutrophil count is
  3. Lymphocytes do what
    • monitor body for CA cells
    • lymphocytes are T-cells and B-cells
    • lymphocytes look for bad cells and stop them before they become a problem, they kill early CA cells in their norm body setting
  4. leading CA cause of death in men and women
    lung Ca
  5. seconding leading cause of CA death in men and women
    • prostate in men
    • breast women
  6. leading new CA causes (not cause of death)
    • men prostate
    • women breast
  7. cancer prevelance
    • 1/2 men
    • 1/3 women
    • more in blacks likely to die than whites but more cases in whites than in blacks
  8. leading chemical cause of CA
  9. common viral cause
    epstein barr virus (mono)
  10. primary CA prevention
    • actions you take to keep something from happening
    • controlling diet
    • eating low fat diet
    • eating high fiber diet
    • eating enough fruits and veggies
    • controlling calorie intake
    • practicing safe sex
    • checking home for CA agents
    • controlling controllable risk factors
    • stopping it before it starts
    • avoiding risk factors
  11. secondary CA prevention
    • screening test
    • exams
    • wanna help detect CA in early stage
    • CA may or may not be there, checking for it
    • ex: breast exam, pap smear, colonoscopy, digital, rectal exam, dermatologist for full body skin check, going to dentist
  12. tertiary CA prevention
    • control CA and prevent disease related complications
    • patient has CA for sure
    • involves all varieties of care
    • surgery
    • treatment
    • palliative care
  13. what stage is protein made in the cell
    G1 phase
  14. what phase is the DNA duplicated
    S phase
  15. what phase does the cell prepare for division
  16. when is most energy used by cell during cell division
    mitosis phase (when cell divides into daughter cell)
  17. what happens when cell DNA is damaged
    cell loses function or morphs into wrong type of cell for body location. Happens in interphase
  18. what is cell differentiation
    process during which young immature cells take on individual characteristics and achieve their mature (specialized form and function) *when they develop to perform their specific task for location*
  19. what is carcinogenesis
    process by which normal cells develop into cancerous cells
  20. what is apoptosis
    when cells self destruct
  21. what is hyperplasia
    increase in number of cells, still under DNA control from response to stress, increased metabolic demands and/or increased hormone levels.
  22. what is metaplasia
    • differentiated cells found in atypical (wrong for cell) part of body.  a protective response to stress.  it is reversible. 
    • still under DNA control
    • normal cell, just in wrong part of body
  23. What is Dysplasia
    • Abnormal size, shape and arrangement
    • loses DNA control
    • precancerous
    • most likely to turn into cancer
  24. What is anaplasia
    • cell regresses back to immature state/undifferentiated state
    • complete loss of DNA control
    • not reversible
    • determines potential risk for cancer
  25. initiation stage of carcinogenesis
    • changes in genetic make up of cell occur
    • permanent damage to cells DNA
  26. promotion stage of carcinogenesis
    • mutated cell grows and divides faster and creates a population of mutated cells
    • can be reversed if carcinogen is removed
    • benign tumor develops and becomes evident
    • may last for years and includes conditions like smoking, drinking, tobacco use
  27. progression stage of carcinogenesis
    • tumor cell growth exceeds normal cell growth
    • DNA is fragile and prone to more mutation
    • mutations regulate growth and cell function until conversion occurs and growing tumor is malignant
  28. what is the G0
    (1st state some cells never leave this stage and some stay for a long time and get activated to start cycle all over again)
  29. Hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia comon factor
    reversible if irritating carcinogen removed
Card Set:
2013-05-06 03:00:42
Cancer Bulthuis

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