Comm Theory

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bianca17
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217995
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Comm Theory
Updated:
2013-05-06 02:47:55
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theory
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unit 3
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  1. Perspectives on leadership (Trait)
    • leaders are born not made
    • set of universal traits (height, weight, physical attractiveness)
    • resides in the individual, not in the interactions of group members
  2. Leadership Styles
    • Autocratic style: characterized by authority and control ex dictator
    • Democratic style: sharing of authority, participation, allows for input ex US gov
    • Laissez-Faire style: authority and control are relinquished to members, let chain of command below take care of it ex prof research assitants
  3. Situational Leadership ("It depends" approach)
    • Fiedler's three contingencies for when to use task vs relational leadership:
    • leader-member relations (good/poor) amount of support
    • task structure (structured/unstructured)
    • 1. clarity of groups goals
    • 2.path multiplicity # of course action avail
    • 4.specificity of decisions 
    • structured if pass these qualifications
    • Leader position power (strong/weak)
  4. Situational Leadership (Hersey & Blanchard model)
    • 3 variable in this model
    • amount of task/guidance direction
    • amount of relational support
    • readiness/maturity level of members
  5. Perspectives on leadership: Transactional leadership
    • communication based approach
    • emphasizes leadership as comm process btw leaders and followers
    • Leader-member exchange:
    • views exchange separately
  6. Perspectives on leadership: Transformational views
    • leader manages meaning, creates vision & empowers others
    • founded on particular attitudes and behaviors that support organizational change
  7. mass communication
    type of mediated communication between a source and a large audience that is often "unknown" by the source
  8. types of mediated comm theories
    • media richness theory
    • uses and gratifications theory
    • hyperpersonal model
  9. media richness theory
    • Daft & Lengel (1984) as new communication technologies develop, decision about the best way to send a message becomes more complex, refers to the information carrying capacity of the medium
    • four characteristics-
    • 1.speed of feedback
    • 2. ability to personalize a message
    • 3. availability of multiple cues
    • 4.language variety
  10. uses and gratification theory
    • Katz, Blumler & Gurevitch (1973)
    • focus on why receiver uses particular outlet
    • humans have free will and choose what, when, how
    • primary assumptions:
    • audience members use media to fulfill goals
    • you happen to mass media
    • media outlets compete with other available means of satisfying personal needs
  11. Hyperpersonal model
    • Walther (1996)
    • individuals are able to achieve self preservation by monitoring their communication episodes and presenting favorable characteristics
    • assumptions:
    • concerned with the way other perceive them
    • challenges: 
    • lack of discussion on how different levels interact with each other
  12. social cognitive theory
    • learning in contrast to operant conditioning (learn through direct reward and punishment)
    • can occur through observation
    • observational learning, behavior modeling
  13. social cognitive theory key concepts
    • inhibitory effect- seeing a model punished for a particular behavior
    • disinhibitory effect- " " rewarded for behavior
    • outcome expectations- believe that we receive same rewards/punishments for specific act
    • outcome expectancies- pos/neg value on an outcome expectations
    • self efficacy- observers believes they have ability to perform a task, confident
  14. media systems dependency theory MSD
    • proposes a system of dependency regarding media
    • societal, media, audiences all effect media
    • ex- war, notice its effect alot more when one is actually going on
  15. agenda setting theory
    • 3 agendas: media, public, policy 
    • process in which the news media lead the public in assigning importance to various issues
  16. spiral of silence theory
    • critique and extensions
    • may work only with regard to valued reference groups
    • hard core members will "speak out"
  17. importance of culture
    • learned
    • set of shared interpretations
    • involves beliefs, values, norms
    • affects behaviors
    • large groups of people
  18. cultural forms/contexts
    • macro- national, countries
    • micro- cultures, social groups
    • rural urban- small towns in the middle of nowhere, cities with alot of people
    • regional- n/s jersey, east/west coast
    • gender sexual orientation
    • family cultures
    • age/generational cultures- baby boomers
    • onion model
  19. Schein's Onion Model *layers peel back*
    • artifacts (surface)- physical manifestations and behaviors ex US flag, dress, statue of lib
    • values (middle)- social principles, philosophies, goals, standards ex preferences
    • assumptions (core)- taken for granted, core beliefs about what is correct ex freedom of speech
  20. low avoidance
    extent to which we appreciate unstructured unclear unpredictable situations
  21. high avoidance
    • extend to which we avoid or cannot tolerated unclear situations
    • high uncertainty avoidance cultures maintain strict codes of behavior
  22. power distance/ hierarchy
    • Egalitarian: Low power distance, Minimize
    • hierarchy and inequality, Question
    • authority, Use power legitimately
    • hierarchy: High power distance, Accept
    • hierarchy, Don’t question authority, power as desired by leader
  23. time orientation
    • monochromic- segmented, one at a time, tangible, 
    • polychromic- fluid, many things at once, natural
    • long term- perseverance, thrift saving
    • short term- desire for immediate gratification
  24. masculine/feminine
    • male- assertive, performance, competition, success
    • female- quality of life, personal relations, service, care
  25. high/low context
    • low- direct, explicit messages, verbal communication, clarity
    • high- indirect, implicit messages, non verbal communication, harmony
  26. standpoint theory
    provides alternative understanding of the relationship of material and lived experience to power, related to critical and feminist theorizing
  27. key aspects of standpoint theory
    • material life structures and sets limits on social relationships
    • standpoints of opposing groups will be diff
    • standpoint of the ruling group structures material experience for all
    • standpoint in oppressed group is struggled for
  28. muted group theory
    • language bound by culture
    • woman, children "muted" in research & society
    • assumptions: women perceive world differently than men bc of diff experiences (power imbalance)
    • mens perceptions of world are dominant
    • women must transform their own models of communication to interact in male dominated world
  29. diffusion/adoption theory (rogers)
    innovations may or may not be good, new and represent change
  30. diffusion
    process by which an innovation is communicated via channels over time to members of a social system
  31. adoption
    process involved in deciding whether to use an innovation
  32. diffusion adoption theory key factors
    relative advantage
    what is the advantage of the innovation over then what you have now, if you see advantage you are more likely to adapt
  33. diffusion adoption theory key factors
    compatibility with existing systems
    get a new innovation, but if it doesnt fit into what you already have. ex- something only working in a european plug
  34. diffusion adoption theory key factors
    complexity/difficulty
    less likely to be adopted if they are difficult to understand, needs simplicity
  35. diffusion adoption theory key factors
    trialabilty
    more likely to adapt if trying innovation before committing
  36. diffusion adoption theory key factors
    obersvability
    have to be able to somehow sense or see the different, observable different you will not adapt
  37. diffusion/adaption theory 
    adopter types
    • innovators- know about technology before anyone else, have everything before available
    • early adopters- ahead of curve, but werent very first informed
    • early majority- 3rd of all users, deliberative
    • late majority- once half the population has it they have, prices gone down
    • laggards- wait till very end, traditional
  38. public goods theory
    • any good that once produced for some consumers can be consumed by additional consumers at no additional cost
    • playground, high way, street lamp

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