pathology I through w

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  1. Impetigo
    bacterial infection of epidermis caused by streptoccus pyogenes

    occurs on face, raised fluid cavities that develop into pus charging crusts
  2. indigestion
    various symptoms related to upper part of gastrointestinal tract caused by reflux of acid/bile into esophagus or irritation of esophagus; may be caused by food
  3. infectious mononucleosis
    • acute viral infection primarily affecting upper respiratory tract caused by Epstein-Barr virus transmitted thru saliva, blood transfusion and bone marrow transplants. 
    • - sleepy 
    • - increased white blood cells, enlarged spleen, liver, rash, and jaundice
  4. inflammatory bowel disease - crohn's disease
    • chronic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract, affecting all layers of intestinal wall caused by unknown but possibly caused by immune disorders
    • - mild pain in abs, fever, nausea, diarrhea
  5. inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis
    • chronic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract, primarily affecting superficial (mucosal) layer of large intestine caused by unknown
    • - remissions and exacerbations of vary severity with blood, diarrhea, mucus, weight loss and arthritis.
  6. Influenza
    • highly contagious respiratory tract infection caused by viral strains of myxovirus influenzae transmitted by droplets in the air. 
    • - onset of fever, chills, headaches, cough, ache, congestion, enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue and weakness
  7. Jaundice
    • yellow discoloration of skin caused by abnormally high levels of bilirubin pigment in blood caused by red blood cell breakdown
    • Signs - yellow discoloration of eyes, mucous membranes
    • anemia - prehepatic
    • hepatitis - hepatic
    • severe itching, foul-smelling feces - posthepatic
  8. Kidney Stones
    formation of solitary or multiple stones in the kidney caused by precipitation of calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and magnesium ammonium in absence of substances that normally inhibit precipitation
  9. kyphosis
    • deformity of spine that produces a rounded back caused by bad posture, arthritis, lung problems, paralysis, weak back muscles, tuberculosis, compression of fractures in vertabrae
    • - difficulty breathing, scapula pulled forweard
  10. leukemia
    • cancerous overproduction of white blood cells in bone marrow and lymph tissue, resulting in abnormally large number of immature white blood cells in blood
    • cause - virus, radiation, chemicals
    • - fever, bleeding, bruising
  11. lice
    • external infestation of lice - wingless insects that feed on human and animal blood. 
    • incubate 6-10 days, develop in 19-25 days
    • body lice - shoulders, back, buttocks, itchy red areas
    • head lice - nits, pearly gray or brown oval structures found on scalp
  12. liver failure
    inability of liver to meet body's needs, conditions that damage hepatic tissue. 

    signs - tendency to bleed, anemia, fluid in peritoneal cavity, edema, spider nevi
  13. lymphoma
    • cancer originating in lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues
    • signs - painless swelling of lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, liver or spleen.
    • risk epstein-barr virus, immune or autoimmune disorders
  14. measles
    • viral infection that produces skin rashes
    • caused by transmission in air or droplets from infection and enters respiratory tract, travelling to blood via lymph
  15. molluscum contagiosum
    viral disease of skin. virus transmitted by skin-to-skin contact
  16. multiple sclerosis
    • progressive deterioration of myelin sheaths of nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. may be caused by autoimmune by T-cells
    • avoid high heat, cold and deep tissue
    • aromatherpay and reflexology has worked
  17. muscular dystrophy
    • group of congenital disorders characterized by a progressive wasting of skeletal muscles, with no loss of sensation of neural activity. 
    • - inherited lack of adequate proteins
    • Duchenne's  - onset between 3 and 5, muscle weakness and hypertrophy in leg and pelvis, affecting gait and posture

    landouzy-dejerine - weakness of muscles of face, shoulders, and upper arms, then progressing to all muscles. 

    ROM of all joints, ab massage for constipation
  18. myasthenia gravis
    • autoimmune, neuromuscular disorder marked by muscle weakness and muscle fatigue. caused by reduced availability of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junction in muscle cells, resulting in decreased efficiency of nerve signal transmission. 
    • stimulation massage and reduce muscle fatigue
  19. myositis ossificans
    ossification in a muscle caused by trauma to a muscle, followed by bleeding, inflammation and fibrosis
  20. necrotizing fasciitis
    bacterial infection involving fasciae surrounding muscles caused by microorganims intro by deep tissue trauma and bacterial flora in GI during ab surgery
  21. nerve entrapment syndrome
    condition that results in continuous or intermittent compression of one or more peripheral nerves caused by pressure from surrounding areas from repetitive movements.
  22. obesity
    • excess amount of body fat, by 20% or more of the expected weight for a person's age, sex, and height. 
    • BMI greater than or equal to 30
  23. osteoporosis
    decrease in bone mass and bone density resulting in porous, fragile bones, caused by aging profess and endocrine disorders
  24. parkinson's disease
    chronic, progressive disorder affecting the motor system due to a deficiency of neurotransmitter dopamine in basal ganglia and overactivity of acetylcholine.
  25. peptic ulcer disease
    ulcers (erosions) in mucous membrane of esophagus, stomach (gastric), duodenum or jejunum caused by infection from bacterium Helicobacter pylori
  26. peripheral neuritis
    noninflammatory degenerative disorder of peripheral nerves, especially those in fingers and toes. uknown cause but may be due to autoimmune mechanims, toxins, infections or genetic conditions. B12 lymphatic massage
  27. plantar fasciitis
    inflammation of plantar fascia and surrounding structures caused by excessive stress on foot
  28. premenstrual syndrome
    physical, psychological, behavioral symptoms occurring 3-14 days prior to onset of menstruation that interfere with normal activities and affect relationships caused by changes in serotonin in brain brought by fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels
  29. psoriasis
    chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of skin possibly caused by keratinocyte migration rate and immune system
  30. ringworm
    • fungal infection of skin that thrives on cooler surface of skin transmitted by contact with an infected person or clothing
    • tinea corporis - round or oval patches with central clear area surrounded by red border with pustules
    • tinea pedis (athlete's foot) - scaly lesions or inflamed, oozing painful lesions between toes
  31. warts
    • viral infection of cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, producing fleshy growths caused by papillomavirus transmitted via contact with an affected individual or with sloughed-off infected skin cells
    • local massage is contraindicated
  32. whiplash
    damage to muscles, ligaments, intervertebral discs, and nerve tissues of cervical region by sudden hyperextension and/or flexion of the neck. consult with physician
  33. varicose ulcers
    • chronic ulcers in leg caused by sluggish flow of blood in legs in individuals with varicose veins, making skin prone to injury and delaying healing, resulting in ulceration
    • - elevate leg above heart using deep, slow effleurage to reduce edema and deep friction around ulcer to soften area and improve circulation
  34. varicose veins
    • abnormally dilated and tortuous veins of lower legs or other areas caused by prolonged dilation and stretching of vessel walls making valves incompetent. 
    • - light massage with leg elevated to move blood and lymph towards heart
    • - contraindicated if twisted hard veins with ulcers
  35. venous thrombosis
    • formation of blood clot in vein due to injury of vessel wall and altered coagulability of blood. 
    • Risk from prolonged bed rest and immobilization
    • Massage is contraindicated
  36. vitiligo
    skin disorder characterized by smooth, hypopigmented, irregular patches on various parts of the body, cause is unknown, but may be genetic, immunological, viral, biochmical
  37. temporomandibular joint syndrome
    • collection of signs and symptoms associated with joint connecting lower jawbone and temporal bone of skull caused by inappropriate alignment and/or laxity of supporting ligaments
    • - unilateral/bilateral muscle tenderness
    • passive stretch, effleurage, petrissage to neck and shoulders
  38. tendinitis - ankle
    • inflammation of Achilles (calcaneal) tendon - overuse of gastroc and soleus. 
    • - lymphatic drainage to reduce edema, massage proximal part of limb, ROM
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pathology I through w
2013-05-14 18:21:10
massage pathology

pathology i thru w.
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