Manipulation and improvement of memory
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The inability to retrieve previously stored information
What is the forgetting curve
- Describes the rate at which information is lost
- 50% is lost within an hour and gradually after
- Overlearned: more likely to remember
- Complexity and intelligence of learner do not affect the rate of forgetting
What is recall and the three types?
- Recall: retrieving store info with minimal cues
- Free recall: retrieving information in any order
- Serial recall: retrieving info in order presented
- Cued recall: retrieving info with various cues to assist retrieval
- Least sensitive
What is recognition?
- Identification of the correct information among a list of incorrect pieces of info
- Generally more accurate than recall because it provides more cues for retrieval
What is relearning?
- Refers to learning something again that has previously been committed to memory being easier than learning something for the first time
- Most sensitive measure of retention
- Most evident in procedural memories
What are the 3 types of retention?
What is the encoding specificity principle?
States the the associations formed at the time of the encoding of the memory, will be the most effective retrieval cues
What are the two types of encoding specificity principles?
- Context-dependent cues: refers to the learner's external environment in which the memory was formed
- State-dependent cues: The psychological/physiological state at the time the memory was formed. (Internal)
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