HDEV 320 Final

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ralejo
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HDEV 320 Final
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2013-05-07 00:31:41
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Research Methods Joan Fisher
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Research Methods Joan Fisher Final
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  1. A theory

    A. helps organize and explain specific facts.
    B. is used to generate research hypotheses.
    C. All of these
    D. guides our observations of the world.
    C. All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Two researchers observe aggressive behaviors displayed by preschool children. One observer records a large number of aggressive acts displayed within a one-hour period while a second observer records relatively few aggressive acts. Based on these results, we might conclude that there is

    A. high reactivity.
    B. high interrater reliability.
    C. low reactivity.
    D. low interrater reliability.
    D. low interrater reliability.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. When conducting a search for previous literature using PsychINFO, you

    A. All of these
    B. can narrow the search to specific sources of publications (e.g., journal articles).
    C. must specify the search terms that you want the computer to use.
    D. should use standard psychological terms.
    A. All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The more ________________ in a test, the greater the variability of scores in the test.

    A. true score
    B. measurement error
    C. reliability
    D. validity
    B. measurement error
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Louie is attentive to customers when his supervisor is present but inattentive when his supervisor is gone. Louie's behavior is an example of

    A. attentive behavior.
    B. unobtrusive behavior.
    C. sensitizing behavior.
    D. reactivity.
    D. reactivity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. A researcher designs a study to examine the relationship between gender and time spent talking in a group. The researcher states, "In a balanced mixed gender group, males will talk more than females." This is an example of a

    A. prediction.
    B. moral judgment.
    C. hypothesis.
    D. question.
    A. prediction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which section of the research article summarizes the hypothesis, the procedure, results, and discussion usually in 120 words or less?

    A. Method
    B. Abstract
    C. Introduction
    D. Results
    B. Abstract
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Categorizing automobiles as American-made or Foreign-made would be an example of a(n) _______________ scale.

    A. ratio
    B. interval
    C. nominal
    D. ordinal
    C. nominal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. A food critic rates restaurants according to the quality of food, service, and atmosphere. She assigns 4 forks for excellent, 3 for good, 2 for fair, and 1 fork for poor. This measure is an example of a(n) _____________ scale.

    A. ordinal
    B. nominal
    C. ratio
    D. interval
    A. ordinal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Kathy has written a section of a research report in which she explains the possible reasons for results in her study and suggestions for practical applications of the research and future research ideas. Kathy has most likely written the ____________ section.

    A. introduction
    B. results
    C. method
    D. discussion
    D. discussion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. One way to increase the reliability of a measure is to

    A. be sure there is variability between true score and measurement error.
    B. increase the number of items in the measure.
    C. calculate a correlation coefficient.
    D. decrease the number of items in the measure.
    B. increase the number of items in the measure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In alternate forms reliability, different versions of the same test are given to _____________ at _____________ in time.

    A. different individuals; two points
    B. different individuals; one point
    C. the same individuals; one point
    D. the same individuals; two points
    D. the same individuals; two points
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. You take your temperature with a thermometer three times over a 20-minute period and observe the following measurements: 98, 106, and 89 degrees. You should conclude that the _____________ of the thermometer is ___________.

    A. validity; high
    B. reliability; high
    C. validity; low
    D. reliability; low
    D. reliability; low
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. A measure is reliable if it

    A. All of these
    B. contains little measurement error.
    C. results in similar scores for the same person.
    D. contains a large amount of true score.
    A. All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. As Joan becomes familiar with the literature examining the influence of physical attractiveness on judgments of criminal behavior, she notes inconsistencies in the results. She concludes that this area of study needs to be further investigated. This example best represents ___________ as a source of ideas for research.

    A. past research
    B. theories
    C. practical problems
    D. observation of the world around us
    A. past research
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. When a measure is not related to other variables that it theoretically should not be related to, this measure is said to have _______________ validity.

    A. discriminant
    B. reliable
    C. convergent
    D. face
    A. discriminant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. When the results of an experiment are consistent with a prediction developed from a theory, we conclude that the theory is

    A. less likely to be true.
    B. neither supported nor challenged by the results.
    C. proven true.
    D. supported by the results.
    D. supported by the results.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Testing common sense ideas

    A. should only be done if a theory has been developed.
    B. is valuable because such notions often turn out to be incorrect.
    C. results in no new knowledge.
    D. are of little value because it consists of things we already know are true.
    B. is valuable because such notions often turn out to be incorrect.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which one of the following statements would be appropriate for the results section of a research report?

    A. Past research suggests that differences exist in ratings of social desirability assigned to attractive versus unattractive individuals.
    B. Future research should examine the effect of attractiveness on judgments of criminal behavior.
    C. The difference between social desirability ratings of attractive versus unattractive individuals may be explained by the Cognitive Consistency Theory.
    D. The average social desirability rating for attractive individuals was 6.4; however, the average rating for unattractive individuals was 3.2.
    D. The average social desirability rating for attractive individuals was 6.4; however, the average rating for unattractive individuals was 3.2.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. A researcher has devised an Interpersonal Skills Test that consists of a type of ruler that shows a person's shoe size. This test probably has ____________ and ___________.

    A. high reliability; low validity
    B. high reliability; high validity
    C. low reliability; high validity
    D. low reliability; low validity
    A. high reliability; low validity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. A(n) __________ is a statement about the expected relationship between variables. A(n) ____________ is a statement about the outcome of a particular experiment.

    A. educated guess; law
    B. hypothesis; prediction
    C. law; educated guess
    D. prediction; hypothesis
    B. hypothesis; prediction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. A major problem with using Internet search engines such as Google as a method of obtaining research information is

    A. they are difficult to use.
    B. All of these
    C. it is too expensive to use.
    D. the credibility of the source and accuracy of the information may be questionable.
    D. the credibility of the source and accuracy of the information may be questionable.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. When a scale designed to measure honesty actually measures a person's honesty, the scale is said to have

    A. consistency.
    B. construct validity.
    C. reactivity.
    D. reliability.
    B. construct validity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. A hypothesis is a

    A. fact.
    B. tentative statement that something may be true.
    C. prediction of results.
    D. All of these
    B. tentative statement that something may be true.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. A difference between an interval scale and a ratio scale is

    A. a ratio scale has equal intervals; an interval scale does not.
    B. a ratio scale has an absolute zero point; an interval scale does not.
    C. an interval scale has equal intervals; a ratio scale does not.
    D. an interval scale has an absolute zero point; a ratio scale does not.
    B. a ratio scale has an absolute zero point; an interval scale does not.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which of the following best represents use of an interval scale?

    A. Naming the different brands of cars seen in the school's parking lot
    B. Assessing students' ratings of their professors performance on a five point scale from "poor" to "excellent"
    C. Measuring the number of boxes of cookies sold by scouts on the west versus the east side of town
    D. Identifying the order of finish for runners in a marathon
    B. Assessing students' ratings of their professors performance on a five point scale from "poor" to "excellent"
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. A teacher writes the results of a test on the board: 7 students received A's, 10 students received B's, 18 students received C's, 4 students received D's, and 1 student received an F. In statistical terms, this is a

    A. measure of central tendency.
    B. measure of variability.
    C. frequency distribution.
    D. correlation table.
    C. frequency distribution.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. An automobile repair shop reports that half of the automobiles they repair have a resale value below $8000. In this example, the $8000 represents which measure of central tendency?

    A. Mode
    B. Standard deviation
    C. Mean
    D. Median
    D. Median
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. A researcher finds that out of 400 pet owners surveyed, 250 own only a dog, 125 own only a cat, and 25 own only a bird. Which measure of central tendency is the most appropriate for this data?

    A. Median
    B. Mode
    C. Mean
    D. Standard deviation
    B. Mode
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Henry finds that for automobile owners, as the price of gasoline increases, the amount of miles they drive in a week decreases. This finding would suggest ____________ relationship.

    A. a positive
    B. a negative
    C. a curvilinear
    D. no
    B. a negative
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. In a perfect positive relationship between two variables
    A. the correlation coefficient would range between -1.0 and +1.0.
    B. all of the scores on one variable will be the same as the scores on the other variable.
    C. All of these
    D. knowing an individual's score on one variable will allow us to predict exactly what his or her score will be on the other variable.
    D. knowing an individual's score on one variable will allow us to predict exactly what his or her score will be on the other variable.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Brewster measures the height and age of four and five year-olds. To his surprise, he finds no correlation between height and age. What is most likely responsible for his results?

    A. He has restricted the range of the variables.
    B. There is too much variability in the sample to accurately calculate a correlation
    C. A curvilinear relationship exists between the variables.
    D. Age and height are not related.
    A. He has restricted the range of the variables.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Mel finds the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is -.63. However, the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time is +.52. Mel can conclude

    A. the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is stronger than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
    B. None of these
    C. the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is weaker than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
    D. the direction of the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is approximately the same as the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
    A. the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is stronger than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. In assessing the relationship between variable X and variable Y, the squared value of the correlation coefficient (r2) is sometimes reported. This value represents

    A. the percent of variability in Y that can be accounted for by X.
    B. the amount of variability in variable Y.
    C. the amount of variability in variable X.
    D. the effect size for the variables.
    A. the percent of variability in Y that can be accounted for by X.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. A regression equation is used to

    A. predict a score on Y from a known score on X.
    B. determine the strength of the relationship between X and Y.
    C. determine the causal relationship between X and Y.
    D. predict the difference between scores on X from the scores on Y.
    A. predict a score on Y from a known score on X.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. When a researcher is interested in predicting some future behavior based on a person's score on some other variable, they should

    A. construct several criterion variables.
    B. construct a structural model.
    C. None of these
    D. demonstrate that there is a reasonably high correlation between the criterion and predictor variables.
    D. demonstrate that there is a reasonably high correlation between the criterion and predictor variables.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. You find that the correlation between two variables is +.63 but that this correlation drops to +.20 when a third variable is partialed out. You should conclude that

    A. the third variable was responsible for the original correlation between the variables.
    B. considering the third variable increased accuracy of prediction.
    C. None of these
    D. the third variable was not a factor in the correlation.
    A. the third variable was responsible for the original correlation between the variables.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics? Descriptive statistics ____________, while inferential statistics ____________.

    A. summarize data; determine the probability that results are due to chance
    B. determine the probability that results are due to chance; summarize data
    C. use nominal data; use ratio data
    D. use ratio data; use nominal data
    A. summarize data; determine the probability that results are due to chance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Inferential statistics allow us to arrive at conclusions about the _____________ on the basis of _____________ data.

    A. independent variable; dependent variable
    B. population; sample
    C. dependent variable; independent variable
    D. sample; population
    B. population; sample
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The statement that the independent variable had no effect is called the _____________ hypothesis.

    A. null
    B. practical
    C. research
    D. significant
    A. null
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. In testing differences between means, the _____________ hypothesis would suggest the population means are different.

    A. research
    B. practical
    C. null
    D. significant
    A. research
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. A researcher assesses the length of prison sentence assigned to a physically attractive or unattractive defendant. The researcher believes that attractive defendants will be assigned shorter prison sentences than unattractive defendants. The research hypothesis would be

    A. physically attractive defendants will receive shorter prison sentences than physically unattractive defendants.
    B. physically attractive defendants will receive longer prison sentences than physically unattractive defendants.
    C. there is no difference in length of prison sentence received by attractive versus unattractive defendants.
    D. some other variable such as gender is responsible for difference in assigned length of prison sentence.
    A. physically attractive defendants will receive shorter prison sentences than physically unattractive defendants.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. A researcher was interested in differences in attitudes about marriage between men and women. She predicted that women would have different attitudes about marriage than men. What would be the null hypothesis?

    A. Women have more positive attitudes than men.
    B. Gender and attitude are not related.
    C. There is no difference between men and women in their attitudes toward marriage.
    D. Men have more positive attitudes than women.
    C. There is no difference between men and women in their attitudes toward marriage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. According to her statistical analysis, an investigator found that significantly more men than women used spanking to discipline their children. Thus, the investigator would

    A. make a Type II error.
    B. reject the null hypothesis.
    C. make a Type I error.
    D. accept the null hypothesis.
    B. reject the null hypothesis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The null hypothesis is rejected whenever

    A. the researcher is convinced that the variable is ineffective in causing changes in behavior.
    B. there is a low probability that the obtained results could be due to random error.
    C. past studies prove it to be wrong.
    D. there is a high probability that the obtained results could be due to random error.
    B. there is a low probability that the obtained results could be due to random error.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Your lab group must choose a significance test to determine if the mean scores of two groups are significantly different. The appropriate test is a(n)

    A. t-test.
    B. Chi-square.
    C. Mann-Whitney U.
    D. analysis of variance.
    A. t-test.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true is called a _____________ error, whereas not rejecting a false null hypothesis is called a _____________ error.

    A. significant; nonsignificant
    B. Type I; Type II
    C. minor; major
    D. Type II; Type I
    B. Type I; Type II
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. A consumer analyst asks participants to rate the comfort of the ride for two brands of all-terrain tires: Trail Cushion and Mud Handler. Trail Cushion was rated more comfortable with a mean of 5.5 than Mud Handler with a mean of 4.3. The Type I error would be to conclude that Trail Cushion was

    A. more comfortable than Mud Handler when a true difference in comfort exists.
    B. more comfortable than Mud Handler when the two tires are identical in comfort.
    C. no more comfortable than Mud Handler when no difference in comfort exists.
    D. no more comfortable than Mud Handler when Trail Cushion is actually more comfortable.
    B. more comfortable than Mud Handler when the two tires are identical in comfort.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Sandra has developed a program designed to increase reading comprehension scores in 6thgraders. She randomly selects three students and has them participate in her program. When she compares the mean score from the students who completed her program to three students who did not participate in the program, she finds no significant difference between their mean scores. What is most likely the reason for the non-significant finding?

    A. Too strong of a manipulation
    B. The use of 6th grade children
    C. A true research hypothesis
    D. A small sample size
    D. A small sample size
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. With three independent variables and a single dependent variable, the most appropriate statistical test to analyze the data would be a(n)

    A. t.
    B. Chi-square.
    C. analysis of variance.
    D. Pearson correlation.
    C. analysis of variance.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. A researcher found that as the amount of violence watched on TV increased, the amount of playground aggressiveness increased. Based on these findings, it can be said with certainty that

    A. knowing the amount of violence children watch on television allows prediction of their aggressiveness.
    B. aggressive children should not watch television.
    C. All of these
    D. reducing violence on television will reduce children's aggressiveness.
    A. knowing the amount of violence children watch on television allows prediction of their aggressiveness.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. A researcher finds that the more a song is played on the radio, the greater the liking for the song. However, she also finds that if the song is played too much, people start to dislike the song. What type of relationship does this represent?

    A. Positive linear
    B. No relationship
    C. Curvilinear
    D. Negative linear
    C. Curvilinear
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. A disadvantage of role-playing is that

    A. participants may unknowingly give inaccurate predictions.
    B. participants are unable to respond to the demand characteristics.
    C. reading a description of some situation may dangerously immerse the participant in the role.
    D. it is very difficult to figure out the hypothesis from a written description.
    A. participants may unknowingly give inaccurate predictions.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. According to the textbook, fraud is most serious when it is discovered in which two areas?

    A. Science and journalism
    B. Math and science
    C. Advertising and journalism
    D. Psychology and biology
    A. Science and journalism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What precautions can a scientist take to be protected against charges of fraud?

    A. All of these
    B. Only publish results that are significant at the .001 level of significance.
    C. Keep careful, documented records of the research.
    D. Never work alone.
    C. Keep careful, documented records of the research.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. What is an Institutional Review Board (IRB)?

    A. A group of scientists and nonscientists, members of the community, and legal specialists who review proposed research for ethical concerns.
    B. A group of scientists and nonscientists, members of the community, and legal specialists who review proposed research for meaningfulness and value to society.
    C. A group of psychologists from psychology departments at different institutions who review proposed research for ethical concerns from all the universities and colleges in a given geographical area.
    D. A group of psychologists from the same department in a single institution who gives approval for psychology studies.
    A. A group of scientists and nonscientists, members of the community, and legal specialists who review proposed research for ethical concerns.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Participants read an account of a crime in which the perpetrator was described as an attractive or unattractive woman. They then assigned the length of prison sentence they felt the woman deserved. The _____________ would be a _____________ variable.

    A. woman's attractiveness; situational
    B. account of the crime; response
    C. account of the crime; situational
    D. woman's attractiveness; response
    A. woman's attractiveness; situational
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. The Zimbardo prison study had to be stopped in fewer than six days because

    A. the participants did not understand the experiment well enough to carry it out successfully.
    B. experienced actors are necessary for this kind of experiment to be successful.
    C. the participants took the roles they were playing too seriously.
    D. the participants had been deceived and did not know what was expected of them.
    C. the participants took the roles they were playing too seriously.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. When a researcher manipulates temperature of a room in order to examine the effect it has on task performance, the different temperature conditions are referred to as the ____________ of the variable.

    A. reliability
    B. responses
    C. subjects
    D. levels
    D. levels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Ethical concerns are especially important with special populations of participants such as ____________ because ____________.

    A. prisoners; they have given up their rights when they committed a crime
    B. mental patients; they are not as capable of refusing to participate if they don't want to
    C. None of these--special populations are not considered differently because that would be discrimination
    D. college students; they often have to participate as part of a course requirement
    B. mental patients; they are not as capable of refusing to participate if they don't want to
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. A measure has construct validity if it

    A. All of these
    B. measures what it is intended to measure.
    C. contains a large amount of true score.
    D. is given to participants in a laboratory setting.
    B. measures what it is intended to measure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. An experimenter had one group of participants eat ice cream that was packaged in a red carton, whereas another group of participants ate the same flavor ice cream from a green carton. Participants then indicated how much they liked the ice cream by rating the taste on a 1-5 scale. The independent variable in this experiment was the

    A. gender of the participant.
    B. ice cream ratings.
    C. color of the carton.
    D. flavor of the ice cream.
    C. color of the carton.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. If a participant has been deceived, ethical considerations require that a researcher conduct a

    A. validity check.
    B. manipulation check.
    C. debriefing.
    D. postmortem.
    C. debriefing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Kyle, a sophomore in high school, and his parents have signed written agreements allowing him to participate in a research study examining attitudes toward alcohol use by high school students. Kyle's agreement to participate is known as

    A. coercion.
    B. deception.
    C. assent.
    D. disclosure.
    C. assent.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Informed consent of participants is often a problem for researchers because

    A. informed consent takes up valuable time.
    B. All of these
    C. knowledge of the hypothesis may bias the participants' behavior.
    D. participants are rarely interested.
    C. knowledge of the hypothesis may bias the participants' behavior.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. If a positive relationship between amount of candy consumed and amount of weight gained in a month exists, what should the results be like?

    A. The more candy consumed, the more weight that is gained
    B. The less candy consumed, the more weight that is gained
    C. The more candy consumed, the less weight that is gained
    D. Amount of candy consumed has no effect on weight that is gained
    A. The more candy consumed, the more weight that is gained
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Which one of the following represents a critical difference between the nonexperimental and experimental methods?

    A. Experimental methods involve operational definitions while nonexperimental methods do not.
    B. Nonexperimental methods involve the manipulation of variables while experimental methods do not.
    C. Experimental methods involve the manipulation of variables while nonexperimental methods do not.
    D. Nonexperimental methods involve operational definitions while experimental methods do not.
    C. Experimental methods involve the manipulation of variables while nonexperimental methods do not.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. A researcher investigated the relationship between age and participation in a discussion on human sexuality. She found that younger students contributed more to the discussion than did older students. What was the research method used in this study?

    A. Operational
    B. Nonexperimental
    C. Experimental
    D. Generational
    B. Nonexperimental
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. In a research experiment, _____________ protects information that is revealed by the participants.

    A. informed consent
    B. debriefing
    C. confidentiality
    D. anonymity
    C. confidentiality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. What is the primary advantage of a field experiment over a laboratory experiment?

    A. All of these
    B. Variables are investigated in a natural context.
    C. The third variable problem is eliminated.
    D. Randomization procedures are simpler.
    B. Variables are investigated in a natural context.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Dr. Kramer found that the average number of miles driven decreases as the price of gasoline increases. This relationship can best be described as a _____________ relationship.

    A. zero
    B. curvilinear
    C. positive linear
    D. negative linear
    D. negative linear
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. Which of the following behaviors would best represent plagiarism?

    A. All of these
    B. Representing another's work as your own
    C. Paraphrasing the actual words of another source without citing the source
    D. Including a sentence that is copied without using quotation marks and a reference citation
    A. All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. The process of clearly identifying how a variable is measured or manipulated is referred to as the _____________ of the variable.

    A. validity
    B. operational definition
    C. reliability
    D. level
    B. operational definition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. When personal interviews are conducted as part of a research study, the identity of the participant might be known. In cases such as these, the researcher must

    A. carefully plan ways of coding the data.
    B. carefully store the data.
    C. explain the procedures to the participants so there is no question concerning the confidentiality of the results.
    D. All of these
    D. All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. In Milgram's study on obedience, telling participants the purpose of the experiment was to study learning and memory was an example of

    A. deception.
    B. debriefing.
    C. informed consent.
    D. psychological stress.
    A. deception.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Dr. Silverman is interested in the daily activities of a group of 4th graders. He asks the children to indicate the amount of time per day they spend watching television, playing video games, and studying. This type of data gathering technique would be an example of a(n) _____________ approach.

    A. quantitative
    B. organizational
    C. qualitative
    D. experiential
    A. quantitative
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. If you ask teenagers to describe the behaviors of their parents that most upsets them, you would be using a(n) _____________ approach of data collection.

    A. qualitative
    B. correlational
    C. quantitative
    D. experimental
    A. qualitative
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. Dr. Smith participates in a police ride-along program in order to examine the day-to-day activities of police officers. This method of gathering information may best be described as

    A. content analysis.
    B. naturalistic observation.
    C. an informational approach.
    D. archival research.
    B. naturalistic observation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Dr. P., who belongs to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), conducts naturalistic observation research during AA meetings. Dr. P. is a __________________ observer.nonparticipantparticipantconcealednonconcealedDr. P., who belongs to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), conducts naturalistic observation research during AA meetings. Dr. P. is a __________________ observer.

    A. concealed
    B. participant
    C. nonparticipant
    D. nonconcealed
    B. participant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. What is the difference between naturalistic observation and systematic observation?

    A. Systematic observation studies are designed to confirm previously formed hypotheses, whereas naturalistic observation studies are not.
    B. Naturalistic observation studies are designed to confirm previously formed hypotheses, whereas systematic observation studies are not.
    C. Systematic observation studies are time-consuming, while naturalistic observation studies are not.
    D. None of these
    A. Systematic observation studies are designed to confirm previously formed hypotheses, whereas naturalistic observation studies are not.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. In a systematic observation study, two different people use the coding system to analyze the same videotape. The level of agreement between the two observers is then determined. This activity addresses which methodological issue in systematic observation?

    A. Reliability
    B. Sampling
    C. Reactivity
    D. Validity
    A. Reliability
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. A two-year account of the progress of a manic-depressive patient who is undergoing psychiatric care is an example of a

    A. naturalistic observation.
    B. systematic observation.
    C. case study.
    D. field experiment.
    C. case study.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Abel and Kruger (2010) examined the relationship of positive emotions and longevity by examining smile intensity in photographs of major league players from 1952 and comparing it to age at time of death. This would be classified as __________________?

    A. archival research
    B. naturalistic observation
    C. case study
    D. psychobiography
    A. archival research
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. A person who tries to present himself or herself in a positive way on a questionnaire is showing a _____________ response set.

    A. None of these
    B. social acquiescence
    C. social psychological
    D. social desirability
    D. social desirability
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. "Should residents of the city spend more money on parks and road improvements?" is an example of a _____________ question.

    A. needs assessment
    B. double-barreled
    C. yes-or-no
    D. leading
    B. double-barreled
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. "Are you in favor of programs designed to help lower the unreasonably high rent in the county?" is an example of a ____________ question

    A. double barreled
    B. loaded
    C. socially undesirable
    D. simplistic
    B. loaded
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. When interviewing Sarah, John nods his head and smiles whenever Sarah responds with an answer that he likes. John's behavior is an example of

    A. yea-saying.
    B. interviewer bias.
    C. a response set.
    D. sampling bias.
    B. interviewer bias.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. A ___________ sample size will _____________ the size of the confidence interval.

    A. small; reduce
    B. large; expand
    C. small; not effect
    D. large; reduce
    D. large; reduce
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. You read in the newspaper that Proposition Q is favored by 57% of those polled. The results of the survey are said to be accurate within 2 percentage points using the 95 percent confidence interval. You can assume

    A. 57 to 95 percent of the population favor Proposition Q.
    B. 93 to 97 percent of the population favor Proposition Q.
    C. 55 to 59 percent of the population favor Proposition Q.
    D. 95 percent of the population will vote for Proposition Q.
    C. 55 to 59 percent of the population favor Proposition Q.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. The city council wants to examine their citizens' feelings about allowing dogs on the city's beaches. They construct a list of all the blocks in the city and randomly select 20% of the blocks to sample. They then survey all residents of the selected city blocks. This sampling strategy is an example of which of the following sampling techniques?

    A. Hypercharged
    B. Simple random
    C. Cluster
    D. Stratified random
    C. Cluster
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. When a confound is discovered in an experiment,

    A. external validity can be assumed.
    B. internal validity is challenged.
    C. external validity is challenged.
    D. internal validity can be assumed.
    B. internal validity is challenged.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. An investigator wants to see whether packaging information affects the way people rate breakfast cereal. The same cereal is put in three packages: (a) a brown box that says, "To start your day off with a smile"; (b) a yellow box that says, "For extra energy all day"; and (c) a white box that says, "Fortified with B complex and iron." In this study the

    A. package information is confounded with color blindness.
    B. package information is confounded with color of the box.
    C. kind of cereal is confounded with color of the box.
    D. package information is confounded with kind of cereal.
    B. package information is confounded with color of the box.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. Internal validity means that

    A. Both a and b
    B. the results are valid within the confines of the experimental situation.
    C. confounds were not well controlled.
    D. results can be generalized to other situations.
    B. the results are valid within the confines of the experimental situation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. Which one of the following accurately describes an advantage of using a pretest-posttest design over using a posttest-only design? With a pretest-posttest design, one can

    A. minimize demand characteristics.
    B. be confident that the dependent measure does not decay.
    C. demonstrate the equivalence of the groups.
    D. use more time to conduct the experiment.
    C. demonstrate the equivalence of the groups.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. A researcher wants to examine the effect of room temperature on task performance. She places one group of participants in a room that is 54 degrees, a second group in a room that is 72 degrees, and a third in a room that is 90 degrees. She then measures the amount of time it takes each group to complete an identical task. This design would best represent a(n) __________ design.

    A. pretest-posttest
    B. repeated measures
    C. three-group pretest-posttest
    D. independent groups
    D. independent groups
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. A developmental psychologist measures aggressive behavior in a group of second-grade children before and then again after viewing an aggressive cartoon. This design would best represent a(n) __________ design.

    A. independent groups
    B. full
    C. random time series
    D. repeated measures
    D. repeated measures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Participants in a concept learning study solve several anagram puzzles over the course of 30 minutes. Even though the puzzles were known to be of equal difficulty, participants solved the puzzles in less and less time as the 30-minute period progressed. This is likely the result of a(n) __________ effect.

    A. Carryover
    B. practice
    C. fatigue
    D. boredom
    B. practice
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. To control for order effects in a repeated measures design, you should use

    A. a long time interval between conditions.
    B. a reversal design.
    C. an independent groups design.
    D. counterbalancing techniques.
    D. counterbalancing techniques.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. A researcher wants to know whether wearing sunglasses improves driving performance. In a counterbalanced repeated measures design, presence or absence of sunglasses would be varied by

    A. None of these
    B. randomly assigning half the drivers to a sunglasses condition and half to a no-sunglasses condition.
    C. having all drivers first drive without sunglasses and then with sunglasses.
    D. having half the drivers first drive without sunglasses and then with sunglasses and having the other half first drive with sunglasses and then without sunglasses.
    D. having half the drivers first drive without sunglasses and then with sunglasses and having the other half first drive with sunglasses and then without sunglasses.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. A matched pairs design is used when

    A. an investigator wants to "match" participants on two variables.
    B. a nonexperimental design restricts the population of participants.
    C. a researcher wants to ensure that independent groups are equivalent on some participant characteristic.
    D. it is too expensive to use simple random assignment.
    C. a researcher wants to ensure that independent groups are equivalent on some participant characteristic.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. Which one of the following is a common reason for using a staged manipulation? The researcher desires to

    A. incorporate practice effects into the study.
    B. simulate a real-world situation.
    C. eliminate demand characteristics.
    D. avoid order effects.
    B. simulate a real-world situation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. An important reason NOT to use the strongest manipulation possible is that it may

    A. cause a ceiling effect.
    B. create a situation grossly different from a real world situation.
    C. result in nonsignificant findings.
    D. invalidate previous research already published in scientific journals.
    B. create a situation grossly different from a real world situation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. While in a shopping mall, a marketing researcher stops and asks you which you prefer: soda in a bottle or soda in a can. Your response would be an example of a _____________ measure.

    A. multiple
    B. psychological
    C. behavioral
    D. self-report
    D. self-report
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. Adam measures the length of time two people spend gazing into one another's eyes as an indication of interpersonal attraction. Adam is using which type of measure?

    A. Self-report
    B. Behavioral
    C. Physical
    D. Archival
    B. Behavioral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. A researcher wants to examine the effect of noise level on reading comprehension. He finds that regardless of the noise level, all participants tested received the maximum scores for their performance. The results may be due to a _____________ effect.

    A. ceiling
    B. maximum
    C. performance
    D. floor
    A. ceiling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. Without informing them, a researcher assigns participants to either an experimental or placebo group. The researcher's assistants who test the participants do not know who belongs in which group. The experiment has used a

    A. single-blind technique.
    B. double-blind technique.
    C. behavioral measure.
    D. strong experimental manipulation.
    B. double-blind technique.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. In order to find a curvilinear relationship, the researcher needs to use

    A. three or more levels of the independent variable.
    B. factorial designs.
    C. mixed design.
    D. more than one dependent variable.
    A. three or more levels of the independent variable.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. A factorial design involves

    A. manipulating two or more independent variables.
    B. an inability to specify the overall effect of an independent variable.
    C. having multiple dependent measures.
    D. All of these
  109. A researcher states that "anxiety decreased performance irrespective of the participants' motivation levels." This statement tells you that there was a(n)

    A. main effect of anxiety.
    B. main effect of motivation.
    C. interaction between anxiety and motivation.
    D. Type I error.
    A. main effect of anxiety.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. A researcher finds that for female applicants, the likelihood of being hired for a job increases as their work experience increases. However, for male applicants, the likelihood of being hired decreases as their work experience increases. This finding would suggest

    A. an interaction between gender and work experience.
    B. a main effect of work experience.
    C. gender and work experience have no effect on likelihood of being hired for a job.
    D. a main effect of gender.
    A. an interaction between gender and work experience.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used to study the effects of participant gender and style of persuasion on attitude change using 40 individuals. This is an example of a(n) ____________ design.

    A. Solomon four-group
    B. Latin Square
    C. repeated measures
    D. IV x PV
    D. IV x PV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. Male and female participants are asked to assign responsibility for a sexual assault on a woman who is modestly or provocatively dressed. In this study, type of dress would be a(n)

    A. moderator.
    B. participant variable.
    C. interactional.
    D. dependent variable.
    A. moderator.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. A marketing company wants to determine which cola beverage is most preferred by consumers. A group of participants tastes Cola A and then rates the taste. The group then tastes Cola B and rates the taste for this cola. A second group of participants follows the same procedure. However, they first taste Cola B and then Cola A. This is an example of what type of design?

    A. IV x PV
    B. 2 x 2 repeated measures
    C. 2 x 2 mixed factorial
    D. 2 x 2 independent groups
    C. 2 x 2 mixed factorial
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. From an ethical viewpoint, the ABAB design is preferred over the ABA design because

    A. the ABAB design is less expensive.
    B. the ABAB design shows the reversibility of a treatment.
    C. it does not seem right to end the design with the withdrawal of a treatment that may be beneficial to the participant.
    D. the ABAB design more powerfully rules out chance fluctuations.
    C. it does not seem right to end the design with the withdrawal of a treatment that may be beneficial to the participant.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. Professor Briscoe finds that when he smiles and makes eye contact with Jeanne, she becomes more responsive to his questions. He tries the same behavior on David, Chris, and B.J. and finds that it also influences their responses to his questions. What type of single-case design did Professor Briscoe employ?

    A. Across behaviors multiple-baseline design
    B. Across subjects ABA design
    C. Across subjects multiple-baseline design
    D. Across situations multiple-baseline design
    C. Across subjects multiple-baseline design
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. Mary discovered that her 7-year-old daughter, Maggie, was especially motivated by money. Mary began a reinforcement program whereby Maggie earned 5 cents every time she brushed her teeth. A month later, Mary instituted a payment schedule of 10 cents every time Maggie went to bed on time without complaining. Once these behaviors were firmly established, Maggie began earning money for every book she read. What kind of single-subject design did Mary employ?

    A. Across situations multiple-baseline design
    B. Across behaviors multiple-baseline design
    C. Across subject ABA design
    D. Across subject multiple-baseline design
    B. Across behaviors multiple-baseline design
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. In a program designed to help teenagers gain summer employment, a researcher measures whether or not the program has actually increased the number of teenagers finding jobs. The researcher is involved in which phase of evaluation?

    A. Outcome evaluation
    B. Process evaluation
    C. Efficiency assessment
    D. Needs assessment
    A. Outcome evaluation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. A researcher learns that a program designed to reduce truancy in junior high school students is not successful because the staff has not been adequately trained to deal with truancy. This finding should have occurred in which phase of program evaluation?

    A. Process evaluation
    B. Needs assessment
    C. Efficiency assessment
    D. Assessment of program theory
    A. Process evaluation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television and then measures their aggressiveness. The researcher concludes that television violence causes aggressiveness. A problem here is that

    A. the researcher should have had the children watch at least 60 minutes of violent television.
    B. All of these
    C. the aggression measure is unreliable.
    D. there is no control group.
    D. there is no control group.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. Dr. Gorton is studying the effect of exercise on cholesterol level. He first measures his patients' cholesterol level before recommending an exercise program and after one month of participating in an exercise program, he measures their cholesterol level again. What type of research design has Dr. Gorton employed?

    A. One group pretest-posttest design
    B. Between groups design
    C. Missing control group design
    D. One-shot case study
    A. One group pretest-posttest design
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. A researcher pretests a group of participants to determine their attitudes toward the use of alternative energy sources to replace crude oil. The researcher then initiates a program to convince them that they should invest in such alternatives. During this time, the price of gasoline rises $.50 per gallon. At the end of the program, the researcher retests and finds that the participants are much more positive in their attitudes. What threat to internal validity most likely accounts for this change?

    A. Maturation
    B. Regression toward the mean
    C. Testing
    D. History
    D. History
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. A graduating college senior takes the GRE (Graduate Record Exam) and scores at the 95thpercentile. Six months later the senior retakes the exam after completing all undergraduate coursework and scores at the 89th percentile. What (other than boring coursework) most likely accounts for the lowered score?

    A. Regression toward the mean
    B. Maturation
    C. Instrument decay
    D. Testing
    A. Regression toward the mean
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. A human resources psychologist is interested in the effect of work schedule on job satisfaction. She compares satisfaction scores of workers who work five 8-hour shifts with workers who work four 10-hour shifts. What type of design has the manager employed?

    A. One-shot case study
    B. Non-equivalent control group design
    C. Non-equivalent pretest-posttest design
    D. One-group pretest-posttest design
    B. Non-equivalent control group design
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. Sonny examines the number of traumatic head injuries that occurred in California for five years before and after the passage of a law requiring the wearing of a helmet. Sonny's design would be classified as a

    A. interrupted time series design.
    B. program evaluation.
    C. control series design.
    D. nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design.
    A. interrupted time series design.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. You go to several elementary schools where you test students who are in the first grade, third grade, and sixth grade to examine the effect of age on a reasoning ability task. You have used the ____________ method.

    A. longitudinal
    B. time analysis
    C. cross-sectional
    D. sequential
    C. cross-sectional
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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