Card Set Information
What is the definition of personality?
a person's characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling that distinguishes one person from another
What is Psychoanalysis?
Freud's term for his theory of personality and therapy for treating psychological disorders, focuses on the unconscious.
What are the three levels of consciosuness?
What are Freud's concepts for looking at personality?
What is the Id?
The unconscious system of the personality which contains life instincts, death instincts, and operates on the pleasure principle
What is the superego?
The moral component of the personality
What is the Ego?
The logical, rational, largely conscious system of personality that operates in reality
What are defense mechanisms?
a means used by the ego to defend against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem
What is repression?
Most commonly used defense mechanism, removes painful memories and thoughts and keeps them away from consciousness
What are the psychosexual stages of development?
a series of stages through which the sexual instincts develop.
What is fixation?
Arrested development at a stage occurring because of excessive gratification or frustration at that stage
What is the Oedipus complex?
Conflict where the child is sexually attracted to the opposite- sex parent and may feel hostility toward the same sex parent
Who was Carl Jung?
He disagreed with Freud on sexual instinct being the main factor in personality and that personality developed in early childhood.
What are Jung's three parts of personality?
What is the Personal Unconscious?
area that contains everything accessible to conscious and hold repressed memories
What is the collective unconscious?
An inaccessible layer of unconscious that contains universal experiences of humankind
What does the collective unconscious explain?
Similarity of dreams, myths, symbols, and religious beliefs
What is the Anima?
Inner feminine figure within man's unconscious
What is the Animus?
Inner masculine figure within woman's unconscious
What is extraversion?
Tendency to be outgoing, adaptable, and sociable
What is intraversion?
Tendency to focus inward and non-social
Who was Alfred Adler?
He emphasized the unity of personality rather than the separate battling components of freud's id, ego, and superego
What is an inferiority complex?
inferiority feelings so strong that they prevent personal development
What is Individual psychology?
Stresses the uniqueness of each individual's struggle to achieve superiority
What are Karen Horney's two main themes?
Neurotic Personality and Feminine Psychology
What is humanistic psychology?
People are assumed to have a natural tendency toward growth and realization of their fullest potential
Who is Abraham Maslow?
Thought that motivational factors are at the root of personality
What was maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Belonging and esteem needs
What were Carl Rogers goals of therapy?
Enable people to open up to experiences
Begin living according to own internal values
What is a trait?
Personal qualities or characteristic which are stable across situations and is used to describe or explain personality
What is Gordon Allport's theory?
A person inherits a unique set of raw materials for given traits
What is a cardinal trait?
A trait that is so pervasive and outstanding that almost every act seems traceable to its influence.
What is a Central Trait?
Trait that would be mentioned in writing a careful letter of recommendation
What are surface traits?
an observable quality of a person
What is a source trait?
Deeper, more general, underlying personality factors
What is Hans Eysenck's Five-Factor Theory?
Openness to experience
What is an Individualist Culture?
Emphasis is placed on individual, rather than on group acheivement
What is a collectivist culture?
More interdependent, they define themselves as a group through interests
What is a situation-Trait Debate?
discussion among psychologists about the relative importance of factors within the situation and factors
According to Bandura, What is reciprocal determinism?
influential, mutual relationship among behavior, cognitive factors, and environment.
According to Bandura, what is self efficacy?
The perception of ability to perform competently whatever is attempted.
According to Bandura, what is high self efficacy?
approach situations confidently, set high goals, and persist in efforts because they believe success is likely
According to Bandura, what is low self efficacy?
expect failure, avoid challenges, give up on tasks
According to Julian Rotter, what is locus of control?
Explains how people account for what happens in their life.
According to Julian Rotter, what is internal locus of control?
See themselves in control of behavior and consequences
According to Julian Rotter, what is external locus of control?
see fate, luck, and chance in control of behavior and consequences