pathology final

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dpaytons
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218116
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pathology final
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2013-05-06 20:54:58
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  1. hirsutism
    male pattern hair growth
  2. "buffalo hump" "moon face"
    paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome
  3. hyponatremia
    low plasma Na+
  4. Addison disease
    chronic adrenal cortical insufficiency
  5. Cushing syndrome
    high plasma glucocorticoids
  6. paresthesias
    tingling sensations
  7. myxedema
    • hypothyroidism
    • mentally sluggish, edema, broadening of facial features
  8. Hashimoto thyroiditis
    • classic autoimmune disease
    • attacking and destroying thyroid gland
  9. thyroid ophthalmopathy
    • upper eyelid retraction, swelling, redness, buldging
    • Graves disease (hyperthyroidism)
  10. proptosis
    • upper eyelid retraction, swelling, redness, buldging
    • Graves disease (hyperthyroidism)
  11. Graves disease
    • hyperthyroidism
    • buldging eyes, retracted eyelids
  12. thyroid storm
    abrupt onset of thyrotoxicosis
  13. corticotrophs
    ACTH
  14. thyrotrophs
    TSH
  15. gonadotrophs
    FSH & LH
  16. somatotrophs
    growth hormone
  17. lactotrophs
    prolactin
  18. oligomenorrhea
    decreased menstrual period
  19. oligospermia
    low sperm count, high androgen, decrease GnRH, LH, FSH
  20. 3 Ps
    MEN-1 (Wermer syndrome)

    Parathyroid, Pancreas, Pituitary
  21. pheochromocytoma
    tumor of cells making epinephrine in adrenal cortex
  22. neuroblastoma
    tumor of nerve cell precursors (common in childhood)
  23. ACTH
    increases cortisol, which increases plasma glucose and handles stress
  24. TSH
    increases thyroid hormones
  25. LH & FSH
    increases sex steroids
  26. GH
    increases insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
  27. PRL
    prolactin, increases milk production and breast development
  28. gliosis
    hyperplasia in response to injury, glial cells proliferate
  29. cytotoxic cerebral edema
    • swelling of injured cells
    • hypoxia occurs, ATP levels drop, and cell begins to swell b/c ionic gradients cannot be maintained, thus swelling occurs
    • reversible
  30. vasogenic cerebral edema
    • increased interstitial fluid volume due to increased vascular permeability
    • caused by high altitudes/cerebral edema
    • vasculature is leaky, so it becomes more leaky and leads into other places, causing lasting damage
    • NOT REVERSIBLE
  31. subfalcine herniation
    • cingulate gyrus displace under falx
    • problem: it can press on cerebral artery and cause infarction
  32. transtentorial herniation
    • temporal lobe displaced under tentorium
    • push temporal lobe and hemorrhage in mid brain --> probably DEATH
  33. tonsillar herniation
    • cerebellar tonsils displaced through foramen magnum
    • tonsils can get pushed out, bad because this will affect the cardio and respiratory systems, probs DIE
  34. diffuse axonal injury
    • swelling and degeneration of axons in the white matter
    • shaken baby syndrome, motor vehicle injury
  35. osteomyelitis
    inflammation of bone, usually from pus producing bacteria, spreads through blood
  36. most common primary malignant tumor of bone
    osteosarcoma
  37. Ewing's sarcoma
    • round cell bone sarcoma---of the bone marrow
    • pelvis, long bones, or flat bones
  38. osteogenesis imperfecta
    • rare, brittle bone disease
    • defective synthesis of type I collagen and defective mineralization of matrix
    • bone curves, zebra lines
    • treat with bisphosphonate
  39. osteopetrosis
    • stone bone, thick and dense bones but not strong
    • can block foramen in skull
    • radiopaque radiograph
  40. Bence-Jones protein
    • light chain proteins that get secreted in the urine
    • seen in MULTIPLE MYELOMA
  41. 4 primary bone malignancies:
    • osteosarcoma
    • chondrosarcoma
    • Ewing's sarcoma (marrow)
    • multiple myeloma (plasma cells in marrow)
  42. multiple myeloma
    • malignant plasma cells in marrow
    • radiolucient areas (punch out lesions)
  43. malaise
    a generalized feeling of discomfort
  44. cyclic neutropenia
    • every 30 days, wbc count drops to 3000
    • oral ulcerations, fever, malaise
    • no treatment because cause is unknown
  45. bacterial-associated leukocytosis
    • a marked elevation in levels of circulating neutrophils as a result of infections by pyogenic bacteria
    • malaise, fever
    • treatments: antibiotics
  46. virus-associated leukocytosis
    a marked elevation in circulating lymphocytes and monocytes in response to viral infections
  47. infectious mononucleosis (IM)
    • infectious disease involving B lymphocytes caused by the Epstein-Barr virus that produces lymphocytosis (kissing disease)
    • leukocytosis of 15000-20000 lymphocytes/monocytes
    • presence of Epstein-Barr virus
  48. Burkitt Lymphoma (BL)
    • a form of lymphoma first described in equatorial Africa that is associatedwith the Epstein-Barr virus and has a predilection for the jaws of children.
    • Multiple large oral tumors
    • "starry-sky" pattern of lymphocytes

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