SOCIOLOGY 1A-FINALS

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Anonymous
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218158
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SOCIOLOGY 1A-FINALS
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2013-05-06 21:43:03
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FINALS SOCIOLOGY
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FINALS FOR SOCIOLOGY
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  1. RELIABILITY
    CONSISTENCY IN MEASUREMENT
  2. VALIDITY
    ACTUALLY MEASURING WHAT YOU INTEND TO MEASURE
  3. SOCIAL LOCATION
    THE CORNERS IN LIFE THAT PEOPLE OCCUPY BECAUSE OF WHERE THEY ARE LOCATED IN A SOCIETY
  4. STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL THEORY
    THEORY THAT SEES SOCIETY AS A COMPLEX SYSTEM WHOSE PARTS WORK TOGETHER TO PROMOTE SOLIDARITY AND STABILITY
  5. CONFLICT THEORY
    THEORY THAT SEES SOCIETY AS AN ARENA OF INEQUALITY THAT GENERATE CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  6. SYMBOLIC-INTERACTIONIS
    THEORY THAT SEES SOCIETY AS THE PRODUCT OF EVERYDAY INTERACTIONS OF INDIVIDUALS
  7. HYPOTHESIS
    PREDICTS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AND AMONG VARIABLES
  8. HAWTHORNE EFFECT
    A CHANGE IN A SUBJECT'S BEHAVIOR CAUSED BY THE AWARENESS OF BEING STUDIED
  9. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
    A VARIABLE THAT CAUSES ANOTHER VARIABLE TO CHANGE
  10. DEPENDENT VARIABLE
    VARIABLE THAT MAY CHANGE
  11. CORRELATION
    A RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH TOW OR MORE VARIABLES CHANGE AND VARY TOGETHER
  12. POPULATION
    TARGET GROUP THAT IS GOING TO BE STUDIED
  13. SAMPLE
    SMALLER NUMBER OF PEOPLE SELECTED TO REPRESENT THE ENTIRE POPULATION
  14. POSITIVE OR DIRECT CORRELATION
    A RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH THE TWO VARIABLES CHANGE IN THE SAME DIRECTION
  15. NEGATIVE OR INDIRECT CORRELATION
    A RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH THE TWO VARIABLES CHANGE IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION
  16. ETHNOGRAPHY
    DESCRIPTION OF CUSTOMS,BELIEFS, AND VALUES OF A PARTICULAR CULTURE COMPILED BY RESEARCHERS WHO DID EITHER PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION OR NON-PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
  17. EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
    UNAWARE OF THE EXPERIMENT
  18. CONTROL GROUP
    AWARE OF THE EXPERIMENT
  19. CULTURAL LAG
    REFERS TO THE FACT THAT SOME CULTURAL ELEMENTS (MATERIAL CULTURE) CHANGE MORE QUICKLY THAN OTHERS (NON MATERIAL), DISRUPTING A CULTURAL SYSTEM
  20. ETHNOCENTRISM
    A TENDENCY TO USE OUR OWN GROUP'S WAYS OF DOING THINGS AS THE YARDSTICK FOR JUDGING OTHERS
  21. POSITIVE ENTHNOCENTRISM
    CREATES IN-GROUP LOYALTY
  22. NEGATIVE ETHNOCENTRISM
    CAN LEAD TO DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PEOPLE WHOSE CULTURE DIFFERS FROM OURS
  23. MATERIAL CULTURE
    ALL THE TANGIBLE OR PHYSICAL PRODUCTS THAT THE MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY CREATE
  24. NON-MATERIAL CULTURE
    ALL THE NON-TANGIBLE OR NON-PHYSICAL PRODUCTS THAT THE MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY CREATES, INCLUDING VALUES, BELIEFS, AND THE LANGUAGE TO EXPRESS THEM
  25. CULTURAL RELATIVISM
    TRYING TO UNDERSTAND A CULTURE ON ITS OWN TERMS
  26. SAPIR-WHORF THESIS
    PEOPLE SEE AND UNDERSTAND THE WORLD THROUGH THE CULTURAL LENS OF LANGUAGE
  27. MEAD'S THEORY ON SIGNIFICANT OTHERS
    WE PAY ATTENTION TO HOW PEOPLE OF CLOSE RELATIONS JUDGE US THAN TO HOW ALL OTHERS JUDGE US
  28. ID
    PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
  29. EGO
    REALITY PRINCIPLE; HELPS TO BALANCE ID WITH SUPEREGO
  30. SUPER-EGO
    OUR CONSCIENCE
  31. COOLEY'S "LOOKING GLASS SELF"
    THE IDEA THAT SELF-IMAGE IS BASED ON HOW OTHERS RESPOND TO US
  32. PSYCHOANALYSIS
    TECHNIQUE FOR TREATING EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS THROUGH LONG-TERM INTENSIVE EXPLORATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND
  33. CONSERVATION
    UNDERSTANDING THAT AN OBJECT MAY CHANGE IN APPEARANCE YET MAINTAINS THE SAME WEIGHT,SUBSTANCE OR VOLUME
  34. NATURE VS. NURTURE
    BIOLOGY VS. SOCIALIZATION; IMPORTANT IN THE SHAPING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
  35. COGNITION
    THE WAY PEOPLE THINK
  36. MEAD'S THEORY OF GENERALIZED OTHERS
    ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND BROADER CULTURAL NORMS AND UNDERSTAND WHAT A TYPICAL PERSON MIGHT THINK OR DO IN SIMILAR CIRCUMSTANCES OR SITUATIONS
  37. OBJECT PERMANENCE
    THE ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND THAT ALTHOUGH AN OBJECT MAY BE OUT OF SIGHT,IT STILLS EXIST
  38. LAWRENCE KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
    PRE-CONVENTIONAL: REWARDED OR PUNISHED

    CONVENTIONAL: RIGHT OR WRONG

    POST-CONVENTIONAL: BEST INTERESTS OF COMMUNITY OR SOCIETY
  39. STATUS
    A SOCIAL POSITION THAT A PERSON HOLDS
  40. ROLE
    THE BEHAVIOR THAT IS EXPECTED OF SOMEONE WHO HOLDS A PARTICULAR STATUS
  41. ASCRIBED STATUS
    SOCIAL POSITION THAT A PERSON RECEIVES AT BIRTH OR TAKES ON INVOLUNTARILY LATER IN LIFE
  42. ACHIEVED STATUS
    SOCIAL POSITION THAT A PERSON TAKES ON VOLUNTARILY THROUGH INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT AND EFFORT
  43. MASTER STATUS
    SOCIAL POSITION THAT HAS SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR SOCIAL IDENTITY, OFTEN SHAPING A PERSON'S ENTIRE LIFE
  44. DRAMATURGICAL ANALYSIS
    STUDY OF SOCIAL INTERACTION IN TERMS OF THEATRICAL PERFORMANCE
  45. IRVING JANUS'S GROUPTHINK
    RESULTS FROM THE TENDENCY OF GROUP MEMBERS TO OVER-CONFORM RESULTING IN A NARROW VIEW OR FAULTY VIEW OF SOME ISSUES.
  46. UTILITARIAN
    ORGANIZATION THAT PAYS PEOPLE FOR THEIR EFFORTS OR ONE THAT PEOPLE USE TO ACHIEVE THEIR GOALS
  47. COERCIVE
    ORGANIZATION BASED ON INVOLUNTARY MEMBERSHIP
  48. NORMATIVE
    ORGANIZATION THAT PEOPLE JOIN IN ORDER TO PURSUE A GOAL THAT THEY CONSIDER MORALLY WORTHWHILE
  49. ROBERT MICHEL'S IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY
    ALL BUREAUCRACIES WILL EVENTUALLY ALLOW THE FEW PEOPLE AT THE TOP TO CONTROL THE WHOLE ORGANIZATION
  50. MAX WEBER'S BUREAUCRACY
    IDEAL TYPE OF FORMAL ORGANIZATION THAT IS RATIONALLY DESIGNED TO PERFORM TASKS EFFICIENTLY
  51. GEORGE RITZER'S MCDONALDIZATION
    • SOCIETY THAT INVOLVES:
    • EFFICIENCY
    • CALCULABILITY
    • UNIFORMITY AND PREDICTABILITY
    • CONTROL THROUGH AUTOMATION
  52. GROUP DYNAMICS
    ELEMENTS INCLUDES GROUP SIZE, LEADERSHIP,CONFORMITY, AND DECISION-MAKING
  53. GROUP SIZE
    • INCLUDES
    • DYAD, TWO MEMBERS
    • TRIAD, THREE MEMBERS

    AS GROUP SIZE INCREASES, GROUP BECOMES MORE STABLE BUT LESS INTIMATE
  54. GROUP LEADERSHIP
    ACCOMPLISHES WHAT THE GROUP MEMBERS MAY OR MAY NOT WANT TO ACHIEVE, STYLES INCLUDES AUTHORITARIAN, DEMOCRATIC, AND LAISSEZ-FAIRE

    INSTRUMENTAL: FOCUS IS ON COMPLETION OF TASKS

    EXPRESSIVE: FOCUS IS ON ESTABLISHING THE WELL BEING OF MEMBERS
  55. CONFORMITY
    GROUPS INFLUENCES THE BEHAVIOR OF MEMBERS
  56. ROBERT MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY OF DEVIANCE
    PEOPLE EXPERIENCE STRAIN WHEN THEY DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO THE INSTITUTIONALIZED MEANS TO ACHIEVE CULTURALLY ACCEPTED GOALS
  57. EDWIN SUTHERLAND'S DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY OF DEVIANCE
    STATES THAT PEOPLE HAVE A GREATER TENDENCY TO DEVIATE FROM SOCIETAL NORMS WHEN THEY FREQUENTLY ASSOCIATE WITH INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE MORE FAVORABLE TOWARD DEVIANCE THEN CONFORMITY
  58. HATE CRIME
    CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON AND CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY THAT ARE MOTIVATED BY SOME KIND OF BIAS BASED ON RACE, ETHNICITY, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, OR GENDER IDENTITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL
  59. TWO ELEMENTS OF CRIME
    • THE ACT
    • THE CRIMINAL INTENT
  60. LABELING THEORY
    THE IDEA THAT DEVIANCE AND CONFORMITY RESULT NOT SO MUCH FROM WHAT PEOPLE DO AS FROM HOW OTHERS RESPOND TO THOSE ACTIONS
  61. MEDICALIZATION
    TRANSFORMATION OF MORAL AND LEGAL DEVIANCE INTO A MEDICAL CONDITION
  62. CLOWARD AND OHLIN'S DIFFERENTIAL OPPORTUNITY THEORY
    SUGGEST THAT DEVIANCE OCCURS NOT ONLY BECAUSE OF LIMITED ACCESS TO LEGITIMATE MEANS BUT ALSO FROM THE EASY ACCESS TO ILLEGETIMATE (ILLEGAL) OPPURTUNITIES

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