English Flashcards

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English Flashcards
2013-05-06 21:57:46
Lang Comp

Literary Terms
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  1. Allegory
    • Definiton: A work with two levels of meaning- a literal one and a symbolic one. It is often used to express generalizations about human existance and teach religious or moral lessons.
    • Example: "The grasshopper falls to provide for the winter while wasting tie mocking the ant"(MLK, "Letter From Birmingham Jail", pg. 266)
    • Explanation: Although this happens to bugs, it shows that people spend too much time pointing out others flaws.
  2. Annotation
    • Definition: Explanatory or critical notes added to a text.
    • Example: "'fortunately for her, the interview consists almost entirely of a four page 'opinion, survey,' with no right or wrong answers'. Julie assures me, just my own personal opinion in ten degrees.'" (Barbara Ehrenreich Part 2, Nickel and Dimed, Pg. 58
    • Explanation: This is an annotation because Ehrenreich includes side notes to her book to create insight without going into great detail in her story. 
  3. Alliteration
    • Definition: This is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.
    • Example: "They will be the James Merediths..They will be old, opposed, pattern; negro women, symbolized at two...They will be the young high school"(MLK, "Letters from Birmingham Jail", pg. 262).
    • Explanation: This is considered an alliteration because it used repetition of the word "they" in the beginning of the sentences, symbolizing of the importance of the future.
  4. Aristotelian Triangle
    • Definition: A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship among the speaker, the subject, and the audience (rhetorical triangle)
    • Example: "Dear my fellow Clergymen" (para. 1 ethos), "Its ugly record of brutality is widely knows" (para. 6 pathos), "Easter season...This is the main shopping season of the year"(Para. 8 logos).
    • Explanation: Ethos, pathos, and logos are represented in these examples by MLK. MLK established credibility early and emits logos and pathos to make the audience feel for and think about the concepts at hand
  5. Allusion
    Definition: A passing reference to historical or fictional characters the author assumes the reader will recognize (biblical, Shakespearean, etc)

    Example: "Teddy- was ever ready to raise Cain." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 13)

    Explanation: This is referring to the biblical story of cain and abel.
  6. Anadiplosis
    • Definition: repetition in the first part of a clause or sentence of a prominentword from the latter part of the preceding clause or sentence,usually with a change or extension of meaning.
    • Example: "I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here"(MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 264).
    • Explanation: He says why he is there at the beginning, but then repeats it at the end in more depth.
  7. Analogy
    • Definition: a similarity between like features of two things, on which acomparison may be based
    • Example: "Just assocrates felt it was necessity to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of it and half truths of the unfettered realm of creativity"(MLK, "Letter From Birmingham Jail", pg. 263). 
    • Explanation: This is extended and expresses the similarity between the creation of tension
  8. Anaphora
    • Definition: The repetition of words at the beginning of successive clauses
    • Example: "...but when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your brothers and sisters at whim; when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse and kick and even kill...when you are forever fighting..."(MLK, "Letters from Birmingham Jail", pg. 263)
    • Explanation: MLK does this to create an effect and to get it through people's heads creating importance of the sentences. 
  9. Anecdote
    • Definition: a short account of a particular incident or event, especiallyof an interesting or amusing nature.
    • Example: "'Dad it's just a bust,' Lori said. 'That's the problem' dad said. He studied the sculpture then suddenly reached over and smeared off Shakespeare's mouth with his thumb. 'What the hell are you doing?'" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 227).
    • Explanation: Walls gives us a short account of why her sister was depressed. She though she couldn't go to New York because of her father. 
  10. Antecedent
    • Definition: The noun to which a later pronoun refers
    • Example: "Let all our neighbors know that we shall join them"(JFK, "JFK Inaugural Speech Address" pg. 301).
    • Explanation: When JFK refers to "Our neighbors" he is talking and those of our country and them all refer to the same people.
  11. Antimetabole
    • Definition: The repetition of words in an inverted order to sharpen a contrast
    • Example: "Injustice everywhere is a threat to justice everywhere"(MLK, "Letter to Birmingham Jail," pg. 267).
    • Explanation: This sentence explain the same idea in two different ways for better understandings. 
  12. Antithesis
    • Definition: A figure of speech in which opposing or contrasting ideas are balanced against eachother in a gammatically parallel syntax
    • Example: "My feet are tired, but my soul is at rest" (MLK, "Letter to Birmingham Jail" pg. 261).
    • Explanation: MLK does not literally mean that his feet and soul are tired and at rest. His feet and soul are apart of the parallel structuring. 
  13. Aphorism
    • Definition: a short, astute statement of a general truth
    • Example: "I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit"(MLK, "Letter to Birmingham Jail", par. 19).
    • Explanation: It is a true fact on why he was arrested in the first place. 
  14. Apostrophe
    • Definition: A calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person, or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction. 
    • Example: "...But it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the negro community"(MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail", para. 5).
    • Explanation: This is an apostrophe in the word "citys" because it demonstrates possession of the city's white power structure. 
  15. Appositive
    • Definition: A word or phrase that renames a nearby noun or pronoun. 
    • Example: "Polly loves cake more than me" "Polly loves cake more than she loves me" (Strunk and White, Elements of style, pg. 12).
    • Explanation: She replaces Polly in the second sentence by adding she.
  16. Archaic Diction
    • Definition: The use of words common to an earlier time period; antiquated language. Example: "Now the trumpet summons us again-not as a call to bear arms, through arms we need, not as a call to battle through embattled we are...." (JFK, "JFK Inaugural Speech" pg. 361).
    • Explanation: JFK speaks in old english as a way to intrigue his audience and sound highly respectable from his knowledge of elder language.
  17. Argument
    • Definition: a summary of the subject or plot of a literary work or play or movie 
    • Example: I have the honor of serving as president of the southern christinan leadership conference, an organization of operation in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia"( MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 2).
    • Explanation: this is an argument because MLK can argue he's president of the leadership conference with hard evidence. 
  18. Assertion
    • Definiton: An emphatic statement; declaration. An assertion supported by evidence becomes an argument.
    • Example: "In justice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 4).
    • Explanation: The clergymen asserted that action of kind and used it against the law, when after King explains its just civil disobedience justified in the face of unjust laws.
  19. Assonance
    • Defintion: Resemblance of sounds; Rhyme in which the same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables of the rhyming words
    • Example: "The last temptation is the greatest treason. To do the right deed for the wrong reason" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" Para. 46).
    • Explanation: This is an assonance because the words temptation, treason, reason, all end in the same vowel sounds, but with different constonances. 
  20. Assumption
    • Definition: A belief or statement taken for granted without proof.
    • Example: "While Mr. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor they are both segregationists dedicated to maintenance of the status quo" (MLK, "Letter from birmingham Jail", Para 12)
    • Explanation: This is an assumption because MLK assumes Mr. Boutwell is more sensitive than Mr. Connor
  21. Asyndeton
    • Definition: Leaving out conjunctions between words, phrases, clauses. 
    • Example: "Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhouer, Vice president Nixon, President Truman, reverend Clergy, fellow citizens" (JFK, "JFK Inaugural Speech" [g. 362).
    • Explanation: Here JFK lists the people to which he refers to and does not include conjunctions between words, phrases, and clauses
  22. Attitude
    • Definition: The speaker's position on a subject as revealed through his or her tone. 
    • Example: "But when you have seen carious mobs lynch your mother and fathers at will and drown your sister..." (MLK, Letter from Birmingham Jail", Pg. 261).
    • Explanation: This shows MLK's negative view of what was going on during the time. 
  23. Audience
    Definition: One's listener or readership; those to whom a speech or a piece of writing is adressed.

    Example: "Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, and fellow citizens." (JFK inagural Address)

    Explanation: JFK adresses the people who he is intending to speak to personally to make his them feel more welcomed.
  24. Authority
    • Definition: A reliable, respected source-someone with knowledge. 
    • Example: "I have the honor or serving as president of the southern christian leadership conference" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail, Para. 2).
    • Explanation: MLK addresses himself as president of the southern christian leadership conference which gives MLK reliable and respected authority
  25. Bias
    • Defintion: Prejudice or predispostion toward one side of a suject or issue.
    • Example: "High school movies are so full of unease and odd, mixed emotions" (Everything's an Argument, pg. 710).
    • Explanation: The author believes that movies made for the teenagers are all emotional. This shows bias toward high school movies. He has a fixed opinion.
  26. Cacophony
    Definition: Harsh discordance of sound; dissoncance; a discordant and meaningless mixture of sound.

    Example:  “By midnight the hilarity had increased. A celebrated tenor had sung in Italian, and a notorious contralto had sung in jazz, and between the numbers people were doing “stunts” all over the garden, while happy, vacuous bursts of laughter rose toward the summer sky." (Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, pg. 37)

    Explanation: This quote shows many different sounds and images that the scene is producing, causing a rather hectic or chaotic scene.
  27. Chiasmus
    • Definition: A reversal in the order of words in two other wise parallel phrases.
    • Example:"I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain morel ends"(MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 267).
    • Explanation: MLK uses chiasmus in this quote because he inversely tries to explain a concept in two ways.
  28. Cite
    Definition: Identifying a part of a piece of writing as being derived from a source.
  29. Claim
    • Definition: an assertion, usually supported by evidence.
    • Example: "But more basically I am in Birmingham because injustice is here" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 3)
    • Explanation: MLK claims there's injustice in Birmingham and he uses gacts to contribute to his claim that Birmingham is biased toward blacks and there is a lot of segragation occurring. 
  30. Classical Model (Introduction)
    Definition: Introduces the reader to the subject under discusstion. Can be a single paragraph or several. Draws the reader into the text by piquing their interest, challenging them, or otherwise getting their attention; establishes ethos.
  31. Classical model (Narration)
    Definition: Provides factual information and background material on the subject an hand, thus beginning the developmental paragraphs, or establishes why the subject is a problem that needs addressing. Level of detail in this section depends largely on aduence's knowledge of the subject. Often appeals to pathos.
  32. Classical Model (Confirmation)
    Definition: Usually the major party of the text, includes the development of the proof needed to make the writers case, nuts and bolts of the essay, containing the most specific and concrete detail in the text; appeals to logos.
  33. Classical Model (Refutation)
    Definition: Addresses the counterargument; a bridge between the writer's proof and conclusion. Most often placed at the end of the text as a way to anticiapte the objections to the proof given in the confirmation; largely appeals to logos.
  34. Classical Model (Conclusion)
    Definition: Can be one paragraph or several; brings the essay to a satisfying close. appeals to pathos, and reminds the audience of ethos established earlier. Rather than simply repeating what has gone before the conclusion it sbrings all the writer's ideas together and answers the question, so what? the last words and ideas of a text are those the audience is most likely to remember.
  35. Cliche
    • Definition: A trite, stereotyped expression; a sentence or phrase, usually expressing a popular or comon thought or idea, that has lost originality, ingenuity, and impact by long overuse.
    • Example: "I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen i f you were to observe their ugly and inhumane treatment of negro women and young negro girls"(MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 359).
    • Explanation: After using pathos in the whole letter it is over used in the end with more pathos. 
  36. Close Reading
    • Definition:  A careful reading that is attentive to organization, figurative language, sentence structure, vocabulary, and other literary and structural elements of a text. 
    • Example: "So must we see the need for non-violent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help med rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights..."(MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 10).
    • Explanation: This is close reading we can see the figure language in the world nonviolent gadflies where MLK refers to them as us who create nonviolent tension.
  37. Colloquial/ism
    Definition: An informal or converstational use of language

    Example: "How bout everybody rallyin' rounds to mixup a new energy plan." (Lunsford, Everythings an Argument, pg. 372)

    Explanation: The language in this sentence is very informal and makes the reader feel more casual.
  38. Complex Sentence
    • Definition: A sentence that includes one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
    • Example: "...at whim; hate-filled policemen curse, kick and even kill...black bros and sis;...affluent society"(MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 265).
    • Explanation: MLK is talking about his betrayed brothers and sisters and the unjust behavior of those who do not agree with their views more than one main subject with the same idea.
  39. Conceit
    Definition: Something that is conceived in the mind; a thought; idea; imagination; fancy; an elaborate, fanciful metaphor of a strained or farfethced nature

    Example: "Unstained and strong enough to shatter walnuts, were still intact." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 6)

    Explanation: This is an extended metaphor.
  40. Concession
    • Definition: A reluctant acknowledgement or yielding.
    • Example: "...rejoice in hipe: patient in tribulation a struggle against the common enemies of men" (JFK, "JFK Inaugural Address" pg. 362).
    • Explanation: When JFK's speech was given his main point was to bring out the best in patrism. He rejoices in hope. 
  41. Connotation
    • Definition: The particular associations. images, or feeling evoked by a word.
    • Example: "To assist Freemen and Free government in casting off the chains of poverty" (JFK, JFK Inaugural Address" pg. 362).
    • Explanation: The phrase evokes feelings of freedom and breaking away from poverty. 
  42. Coordination
    • Definition: Grammatical equivalence between parts of a sentence, often through a coordinating conjunction such as and or but.
    • Example: "As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 8).
    • Explanation: This uses "and" to show the equivalence of past experiences and hopes ruined and disappointed with them on segregation. 
  43. Cumulative Sentence
    Definition: an independent clause followed by subordinate clauses or phrases that supply additional information.

    Example: "Those days when she was her old self, the affectionate and charming Bonnie her friends cherished." (Truman Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 27)

    Explanation: The independent clause is "old self"  and the subordinate clause is "she".
  44. Common Ground
    • Definition: Shared beliefs, values, or positions. 
    • Example: "But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth"(MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 2).
    • Explanation: MLK and the clergy men believed the clergy men are genuine and good. Same beliefs on values and positions. 
  45. Context
    Definition: Words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.

    Example: "Mist hanging over a silent lake gnarled roots heaving up from the earth." (Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 223)

    Explanation: The author offers details to help determine the meaning of the word "gnarled"."
  46. Counterargument
    • Definition: A challenge to a position; an opposing argument.
    • Example: "...then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait..." (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 264).
    • Explanation: When MLK expresses his view in his letter, he challenges the thoughts of the clergy men and explains his reasoning. 
  47. Credible
    • Definition: Worthy of belief; trustworthy.
    • Example: "I have the honor of serving as President of the southern christian leadership conference" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 362).
    • Explanation: He describes his position, which gains trust because of his title. 
  48. Declarative Sentence
    • Definition: A sentence that makes a statement.
    • Example: "Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 260).
    • Explanation: MLK took the time to respond to an instult. It's quote is applied as a statement. 
  49. Deduction
    Definition: Reasoning from general to specific

    Example: "Its not a trivial excercise, its about 120 questions long! In fact, its so tedious and demanding that many students leave 10-20 questions blank." (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 247)

    Explanation: The author gives a brief description, then elaborates and gives a specific example.
  50. Denotation
    Definition: The literal or dictionary meaning of a word

    Example: "Dad nodded and held out his hands in a peace gesture." (Walls, Glass Castle, pg. 109)

    Explanation: The word "gesture" is used literally in this quote.
  51. Dialectical Journal
    Definition: A double-column journal in which one writes a quotation in one column and reflections on that quotation in the other column.
  52. Diction
    • Definition: A writer's choice of words, a significant component of style, including how the writers use and arrange words.
    • Example: "Moms and dads got into arguments all the time in Battle Mountain, so it didn't seem that big of a deal, but this fight was ravenous even by local standards, and some people thought they should step in and break it up" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 71).
    • Explanation: This is diction because it uses word choice of ravenous to seem educated and it helps bring out the education she earned from her parents. 
  53. Didactic
    Definition: intended for instruction; instructive

    Example: "She applied to a job and was hired right away, since she had a degree, and there were never enough teachers in battle mountain. The few teachers the town did have were not exactly the pick of the litter, as dad liked to say..." (Walls, Glass Castle, pg. 73)

    Explanation: As a teacher, she would be teaching kids to be responsible.
  54. Documentation
    Definition: Biological information about the sources used in a piece of writing.

    Example: "The biggest company secret workers challenge employers practices on pay confidentiality; New York Times, July 28, 2000." (Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, pg. 207)

    Explanation: The author provides a bibliographic source.
  55. Elegiac
    Definition: Mournful over what has passed or been lost; often used to describe tone

    Example: "As I stood looking at the blood stained spot where he had fallen, pongs of anger hit me like lightning, paralyzing me emotionally." (Moody, Coming of Age, pg. 203)

    Explanation: The main character is mournful over death.
  56. Epigram
    Definition: A brief witty statement.

    Example: "I am baby, honey, blondie, and most commonly, girl." (Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, Pg. 12)

    Explanation: She is using sarcasm in this brief statement.
  57. Explication
    Definition: Explanation of a text's meaning through an analysis of all of its constituent parts, including the literary devices used; also called close reading.
  58. Ethos
    • Definition: A greek term referring to the character of a prson; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals.
    • Example: "When I was hired at one of the biggest magazines the the city..." (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 288).
    • Explanation: This adds credibility to Jeannette's character because she got to experience writing for the paper first hand so i would believe her. 
  59. Euphemism
    • Definition: The substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought ot be offenseive, harsh, or blunt.
    • Example: "For years now I have heard the word "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every negro with piercing familiarity. Thus "Wait!" has almost always meant "Never"' (MLK, "Letters from Birmingham Jail" pg. 266).
    • Explanation: Here the word "wait" has always been meant to give the negroes hipe, but they have said "wait" for so long that it really means nothing to them anymore.
  60. Figurative Language
    • Definition: The use of tropes or figures of speech going beyond literal meaning to achieve literary effect.
    • Example: " see the church as the body of Christ. OH! How we have blemished and red that body" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 261)
    • Explanation: MLK gives human traits to the church. It is the house of God and in this letter it's a body of God. The church has blemishes such as a person would. 
  61. Facts
    • Definition: Information that is true or demonstrable.
    • Example: "Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 6).
    • Explanation: Once MLK states the segregation in the city he throughly backs up his state with demonstrable concrete details.
  62. Fallacy (Dicto Simpliciter)
    Definition: A fallacy in which a general rule is treated as universally true regardless of the circumstances: a sweeping generalization.

    Example: "God id good, therefore everyone should believe." (Moody, Coming of Age, pg. 190)

    Explanation: This offers no support to the conclusion.
  63. Fallacy (Hasty Generalization)
    Definition: A fallacy in which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence.

    Example: Google ads (Everythings an Argument, pg. 527)

    Explanation: Google decoartes their internet logo for most US holidays, but also for some non-US holidays such as Earth day and the persian new year. Some people might say because of this, google in anti-american. This is a hasty generlization.
  64. Fallacy (Post hoc)
    Definition: A fallacy in which one event is said to be the cause of a later event simply because it occurred earlier.

    Example: "Then touched the brim of his cap, he headed for home and the day's work unaware that it would be his last." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 13)

    Explanation: When he let poachers on his land, his life was then ended
  65. Fallacy (Contradictory premises)
    Definition: An argument (generally considered a logical fallacy) that draws a conclusion from inconsistent or incompatible premises.

    Example: "She is black, so she cannot provide for herself, yet she provides for her whole family." (Moody, Coming of Age, pg. 105)

    Explanation: This conclusion is drawn from insufficient evidence or premises
  66. Fallacy (Ad misericordiam/bathos)
    Definition: An argument based on an appeal to the emotions; a logical fallacy that involves an irrelevant or highly exaggerated appeal to pity or sympathy. Also known as argumentum ad misericordiam orappeal from pity or misery.

    Example: "Mr. Clutter had just one serious cause for disquiet- his wife's health. She was "nervous". She suffered from "little spells." - such were sheltered expressions used by those close to her." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 7 )

    Explanation: The author uses pity to understand how the community felt about Ms. Clutter.
  67. Fallacy (False Analogy)
    Definition: A fallacy in which an argument is based on misleading, superficial, or implausible comparisons

    Example: We just reacted because we didnt have any other option...I may remind you, September 11th, the reaction was similar. Americans were killed. You know the reaction". (Ivanov, Everythings an Argument, pg. 534)

    Explanation: This is a false analogy because is it misleading and false.
  68. Fallacy (Hypothesis contrary to fact)
    Definition: From a statement of fact, the argument draws a counterfactual claim (i.e. a claim about whatwould have been true if the stated fact were not true). The argument falsely assumes that any state of affairs can have only one possible cause.

    Example: "Ballerinas pick their top athletes this way too." (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 10)

    Explanation: The author provides no real evidence to support the claim.
  69. Fallacy (poisoning a well)
    Definition: A logical fallacy (a type of ad hominem argument) in which a person attempts to place an opponent in a position from which he or she is unable to reply.

    Example: "Dont Listen to him, he's no good." (Moody, Coming of Age, pg. 125)

    Explanation: The author gives no logical statement of why the reader shouldn't trust him.
  70. Fallacy (Scare tactic)
    Definition:A fallacy that relies on force or intimidation to persuade an audience to accept aproposition or take a particular course of action

    Example: Anti-weed ad. (Everythings an Argument, pg. 519)

    Explanation: This ad shows the dangers of illegal drugs and how they can be dangerous in other ways than just health side effects, but the damage you can cause to your body while actually being under the influence of these drugs
  71. Fallacy (Either or Choice)
    Definition: A fallacy of oversimplification that offers a limited number of options (usually two) when in reality more options are available.

    Example: The New Yorker collection 2001 cartoon (David Sipress, Everythings an Argument, pg. 518)

    Explanation: The cartoon displays a husband telling his wife that the people he is speaking to on the phone says they can either go there for thanksgiving or be taken out of the will. This is a great example of this fallacy.
  72. Fallacy (Slippery slope)
    Definition: A fallacy in which a course of action is objected to on the grounds that once taken it will lead to additional actions until some undesirable consequence results.

    Example: "Anyone else bored to tears with the slippery slope arguments against gay marriage" Ad for slippery slope. (Dahila Litheick, Everythings an Argument, pg. 521)

    Explanation: She is saying that extremists who are actually just afraid of gay weddings, use slippery slope to argue against it.
  73. Fallacy (Bandwagon)
    Definition: A fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: everyone believes it, so you should too.

    Example: "If everyone else jumps off a cliff, will you too?" (Everythings an Argument, chapter 17, pg. 494)

    Explanation: This quote shows an appeal to bandwagon because if everyone is doing something then will you follow them?
  74. Fallacy (Appeal to False Authority)
    Definition: A fallacy in which a rhetor seeks to persuade an audience not by givingevidence but by appealing to the respect people have for the famous.

    Example: "Claim: X is true because I say so. Warrant: What I say must be true." (Everythings an Argument, pg. 524)

    Explanation: These claims state authority very badly and readers would not except them. This is an example of an appeal to false authority.
  75. Fallacy (Dogmatism)
    Definition: Proposing that there simply cannot be any other possible way of making sense of and engaging with an issue but the one you represen

    Example: "No rational person would disagree that..." (Everythings an Argument, pg. 525)

    Explanation: This is an example of dogmatism because it shows that no argument is needed.
  76. Fallacy (Moral Equivalence)
    Definition: Proposing that because some people act a certain way, than everyone else has the right to do so too.

    Example: "A tragedy, unbelievable and shocking  beyond words, struck four members of the Herb Clutter family late Saturday...Death, brutal, and without apparent motive. (Capote, In Cold Blood, Pg. 70)

    Explanation: The murder in this book is an example of moral equivalence because it is a serious wrong doing.
  77. Fallacy (Ad hominem)
    Definition: An argument based on the perceived failings of an adversary rather than on the merits of the case; a logical fallacy that involves a personal attack.

    Example: "But can congress and the media be expected to swallow the apointment of a proven coverup artist, a discredited historian, a busted liar, and a man who is wanted in many jurisdictions for the vilest of effenses?" (Christopher Hitchens, "The Case against Henry Kissinger", Everythings an argument, pg. 525)

    Explanation: This is an example of Ad Hominem because the person is attacking the other person in general, not the claim or opinion he or she made.
  78. Fallacy (Begging the question)
    Definition: A fallacy in which the premise of an argument presupposes the truth of its conclusion; in other words, the argument takes for granted what it is supposed to prove.

    Example: "You can't give me a C in this course, I am an A student." (Everythings an Argument, pg. 529)

    Explaination: An A student is someone who can't recieve C's, therefore, this is begging the question.
  79. Fallacy (Equivocation)
    Definition: A fallacy by which a key word or phrase in an argument is used with more than one meaning.

    Example: "I wrote the entire paper myself". (Everythings an argument, pg. 531)

    Explanation: This quote is hypathetically from a girl who copied an entire essay from a source word for word. She is using the word "wrote" equivocally
  80. Fallacy (Non sequitar)
    Definition: A fallacy in which a conclusion does not follow logically from what preceded it

    Example: "You don't love me or you would buy me that bicycle!" (Everythings an Argument, pg. 531)

    Explanation: This is an example of non sequitar because the reasons or warrants do not connect logically. The bicycle does not actually define love.
  81. Figure of Speech
    Definition: An expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying a literary meaning

    Example: "It lingered like a cloud that might rain or might not." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 27)

    Explanation: The author is giving a literary effect by providing a simile
  82. Fragment
    Definition: A word, phrase, or clause that does not form a full sentence

    Example: "And so on.." (Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, pg. 95)

    Explanation: This is not a complete sentence.
  83. Hyperbole
    • Definition: Exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis.
    • Example: "The class laughed violently" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 138).
    • Explanation: She exaggerates the laughing of the class to emphasize the sound of laughter in the class.
  84. Idiom
    • Definition: An expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, or from the general grammatical rules of a language, and that is not a consituent of a larger expression of like characteristics.
    • Example: "Sink or swim" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 66).
    • Explanation: It is an idiom because it refers to Wall's life, that she will need to struggle to surpass a certain situation.
  85. Induction
    • Definition: Reasoning from specific to general.
    • Example: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I can't agree wit your methods of direct function; who paternalistically believes he can set the immutable for another man's freedom who lives by a mythical concept of time and advises the negro..." (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 267).
    • Explanation: MLK stats off by talking about the specifics of the life of his fellow brothers of color, then he goes to the generalizations. 
  86. Invective
    Definition: Vehement or violent denunctiation, censure, or reproach; an insulting or abusive word or expression

    Example: "Dick, who took a dim view of Willie-Jay and called the letter Just more of Billy Grahamcracker's hooey. Adding faggots of scorn. He's the faggot. (Capote, In Cold Blood)

    Explanation: The authors uses the word faggot as an abusive word.
  87. Inversion
    • Definition: A sentence in which the verb precedes the subject.
    • Example: "I shall never forget your kindness." Invert: "Never shall i forget your kindness." (Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, page 301).
    • Explanation: She could of said this either way meaning the same thing The verb was preceding the subject. 
  88. Imagery
    • Definition: This describes words and phrases that re-create vivid sensory experiences in the reader, usually, but not limited to, the visual.
    • Example: "I stared at mine. It was shiny, purple, and had a white banana seat wire basket on the side, chrome handles that swept out like steer horns and white plastic handles with purple-and-silver tassels (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 99).
    • Explanation: This is imagery because Walls uses very descriptive images of her bicycle as a child and I can picture it in my head. 
  89. Imperative Sentence
    • Definition: A sentence that requests or commands.
    • Example: "My fellow citizens of the world: Ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom on man" (JFK, "JFK Inaugural Address" pg. 227). 
    • Explanation: JFK is asking the citizens in America to not depend on others but to work together to propel forward. 
  90. Irony
    • Definition: A contradiction between what is said and what is meant; incongruity between action and result.
    • Example: "Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application...There is nothing wrong i;n having an ordinance...but such ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 362).
    • Explanation: It's ironic that the law states freedom to all but the black people get treated like crud.
  91. Jargon
    • Definition: The language, especially the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group.
    • Example: "He's a JD" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 115).
    • Explanation: A JD is shortening for its real term, Juvenile Delinquent. Not many would understand what this meant without the context clues. 
  92. Juxtaposition
    • Definition: Placement of two things side by side for emphasis. 
    • Example: "[W]e Are their heirs of that first revolution let the word go forth....that torch has seen passed to a new-generation of Americans-born in this century" (JFK, "JFK Inaugural Address" pg. 270).
    • Explanation:
    • The author of this piece chose to emphasize the new generation of America. The new generation would be those of the United States.   
  93. Litote/Meiosis
    Definition: Belittlement; expressive understatement

    Example: "And that, really is all." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 21)

    Explanation: He uses this quote as a fact to say the town is drab.
  94. Logos
    • Definition: A Greek term that means "word"; an appeal to logic' one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals.
    • Example: "We dare not attempt them with weakness for only when our are sufficient beyond doubt even be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed" (JFK, "JFK Inaugural Address" Pg. 271).
    • Explanation: JFK speaks about the logical way to succeeed. When one should be prepared and not show their weakness, but strive for the top.
  95. Metaphor
    Definition: A figure of speech or trope through which one thing is spoken of as though it were someone else; this makingand implicit comparison.

    Example: "Just after Thanksgiving, the first big show started with fat, wet flakes the size of butterflies." (Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 175)

    Explanation: Walls compares the snow to fat wet flakes which gives it a physical look and helps the audience understand and imagine what she is talking about.
  96. Metonymy
    • Definition: Use of an aspect of something to represent the whole.
    • Example: "Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to obey, disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that 'an unjust law is no law at all'" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 265).
    • Explanation: This is a metonymy because MLK uses an aspect of St .Augustine's thoughts on unjust laws, and how those shouldn't be a law at all, he brings in Augustine represent the whole idea on just laws.
  97. Modifier
    • Definition: A word, phrase, or clause that qualifies or decribes another word, phrase, or clause.
    • Example: "Eventually Dad grew up and it was quiet except for the sound of our feet crunching on the sand and rocks" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 300).
    • Explanation: Jeannette knew her father wanted the best for his daughters but he continued his old ways, until he decided he was too old to play games. 
  98. Mood
    • Definition: The feeling that an author creates in the reader.
    • Example: "Their argument continued the next morning...Mom was carrying on about how things had gotten so desperate around the house that we didn't have anything to eat except butter" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg.27).
    • Explanation: The author created a mood that is very relatable for people at our age. The mood is sad and one feels sorry.
  99. Motif
    • Definition: A recurring subject, theme, idea, etc., especially in a literary, artistic, or musical work.
    • Example: "Have I ever let you down?" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 15).
    • Explanation: The father would always ask his daughter if he ever let her down. Even though he had bad habits, he was always there. 
  100. Narration
    Definition: Reflecting an event or serious events.

    Example: "I told her how I had stopped off in Chicago for a day on my way East, and how a dozen people had sent their love through me." (Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, pg. 9)

    Explanation: This is an example of Narration because he is telling a story
  101. Nominalization
    • Definition: Turning a verb or adjective into a noun.
    • Example: "I knew very well that I spoke english poorly" (Language of Composition, pg. 542).
    • Explanation: "Knew" and "spoke" are nominalization of knowledge and speech.
  102. Omniscient Narrator
    Definition: an all-knowing, usually third-person narrator

    Example: "And yes, his sentences come marching out one after another, polished and crisp like soldiers on a parade ground." (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 90)

    Explanation: The author knows details about this person's life.
  103. Onomatopoeia
    Definition: The formation of a word by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent.

    Example: " With fenders spread like wings we scattered light through half Astoria- only half, for as we twisted among the pillars of the elevated I heard the familiar "jug-jug-spat!" (Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, pg. 68)

    Explanation: Fitzgerald used onomatopoeia to describe the noise of the motercycle.
  104. Oxymoron
    • Definition: A figure of speech that combines two contradictory words.
    • Example: "How are they going to say the violent crazed black man is in the peace core promoting equality" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 3).
    • Explanation: It's a complete oxymoron the way the clergymen discriminated against. Not all black people are crazy and those crazy black people are those making peace corps.
  105. Occasion
    • Definition: an aspect of context; the cause or reason for writing.
    • Example: "I was still shocked from seeing mom, the unexpectedness of coming across her, the sight of her rummaging happily thorough the dumpster. I put some in hoping the music would settle me down (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 16).
    • Explanation: Perhaps Wall's reasons for writing was to explain how she had come to such a position, her catching homeless mother through the window of a taxi. Its her occasion.
  106. Pacing
    Definition: The relative speed or slowness with which a story is told or an idea is presented
  107. Paradox
    Definition: A statement that seems to contradict itself, but, in fact, reveals some element of truth and may point to a higher level of understanding.

    Example: "In the truest sense of that word: it does not permit in sensitivity or indifference." (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 217)

    Explanation: This statement seems cliché, but it is actually true.
  108. Parallelism
    Definition: The repetition of similar grammatical or syntactical patterns.

    Example: "Other kids wanted to fight us because we had red hair, because dad was a drunk, because we wore rags and didn't take baths, because we lived in a falling down house...because they'd go by our dark house at night and see that we couldn't afford electricity." (Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 165)

    Explanation: The author uses repetition of the word because to show that there were several reasons why the kids were being beaten up.
  109. Parody
    Definition: A piece that imitates and exaggerates the prominent features of another; used for comic effect or ridicule

    Example: "If you want to know the answer, Im afraid I have no idea." (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 71) Explanation: She was making fun of her own intelligence.
  110. Pattern of Development (Narration)
    Definition: An account of a sequence of events, usually in chronological order. One of the progymnasmata.

    Example: "I was playing hide and seek along the tracks with some of the neighborhood kids, I found the perfect hiding place, a small tool shed behind a clump of sagebrush that no one had hid before." (Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 85)

    Explanation: Walls is retelling a childhood event.
  111. Pattern of Development (Description)
    Definition: Includes many specific details exphasizing the senses by painting a picture of how something looks, smells, tastes, sounds, or feels. Used to establish mood or atmosphere

    Example: "It was though his head had been halved like an apple, then put it together a fraction off center... the imperfectly aligned features were the outcome of a car collision in 1950." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 31)

    Explanation: This is a description of Dick.
  112. Pattern of Development (Process Analysis)
    Definition: Explains how something works, how to do something, or how something was done.

    Example: "It requires no language skills or specific body of acquired knowledge. It's a measure of abstract reasoning skills. (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 77)

    Explanation: The author is analyzing how the Raven test works.
  113. Pattern of Development (Exemplification)
    Definition: Providing a series of examples-facts, specific cases, or instances- turns a general idea into a concrete one; this makes your argument both clearer and more persuasive to a reader

    Example: "This isn't a night where you can rely on just your eyes to land the plane. Look at the weather radar is telling us: there's trouble ahead. (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 216)

    Explanation: This is providing a clear example to the given statement.
  114. Pattern of Development (Comparison/Contrast)
    Definition: Juxtaposing two things to highlight their similarities and differences. Used to analyze information carefully, which often reaveals insights into the nature of the information being analyzed

    Example: "She was black and he was not, it could never work in this day." (Moody, Coming of Age, pg. 235)

    Explanation: In this statement, two ideas are compared.
  115. Pattern of Development (Classification/Division)
    Definition: Sort material or ideas into major categories, being able for writers and readers to make connections between things that might seem otherwise unrelated.

    Example: "Termites were at the absolute pinnacle of the intellectual scale- at the ninety-ninth percentile of that ninety-ninth percentile- without realizing how little that meant." (Gladwell, Outliers, Pg. 89)

    Explanation: This is breaking down the idea that genius is not everything
  116. Pattern of Development (Definition)
    Definition: Used to ensure that writers and their audiences are speaking the same language, definition lays the foundation to establish common ground or identifying areas of conflict.

    Example: "The way she saw it, glasses were like crutches. They prevented people with feeble eyes from learning to see the world on their own." (Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 96)

    Explanation: This shows the effect of glasses.
  117. Pattern of Development (Cause and Effect)
    Definition: Used to carefully trace a chain of cause and effect events and to recognize possible contributing factors, powerful foundation in an argument

    Example: "Those rotten chickens that came in with sores all over them, I would see women take them, cut the knots and rotten sores off and box the remaining parts. These women would often have terrible rashes break out on their hands from the hot blood and dieseased flesh." (Moody, Coming of Age, pg. 181)

    Explanation: The chickens had sores (cause), so they women handling them broke our in rashes (effect).
  118. Pathos
    • Definition: A greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated with broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals.
    • Example: "...see tears welling up in her eyes" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 367).
    • Explanation: MLK talks about the painful experiences that black people have to go through everyday just because the color of their skin. Pathos brings sad emotion. 
  119. Periodic Sentence
    • Definition: A sentence that builds toward and ends with the main clause.
    • Example: "...Then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 362).
    • Explanation: MLK talks about the struggles he goes through then addresses why they are not doing anything to interfere yet. 
  120. Persona
    • Definition: The speaker, the voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing.
    • Example: When we all got home that afternoon, mom and dad were eager to hear about our first day. It was good I said. I didn't want to tell mom the truth. I was in no mood about positive thinking" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 330).
    • Explanation: Here, the author takes the persona of her self as a young girl I've calling her life experiences
  121. Personification
    • Definition: Assigning lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects.
    • Example: "...candle flames suddenly shifted dancing along the border between turbulence and order" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 108).
    • Explanation: Giving the candle flames the ability to dance around is not realistic but it is a personification to describe their appearance.
  122. Point of View (1st)
    • Definition: The use of I, me, we and other first-person pronouns to relate the thoughts, experiences, and observations of a narrator in a work of fiction or nonfiction.
    • Example: "I was sitting in a taxi, wondering if I had over dressed for the evening" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 3).
    • Explanation: Jeannette talks about an account first hand, that's why she used the word "I". She is the narrator of the story. 
  123. Point of View (2nd)
    • Definition:  Use of the imperative mood and the pronouns you, your, and yours to address a reader or listener directly.
    • Example: "I came across your recent statement calling my present activities 'unwise and untimely"' (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 1).
    • Explanation: This is 2nd person because Martin Luther King is talking to the fellow clergy men addressing their thoughts and stating his opinions.
  124. Polemic
    Definition: An argument against an idea, usually regarding philosophy, politics, or religion
  125. Polysyndeton
    Definition: The deliberate use of a series of conjunctions

    Example: "She had committed to helping another neighbor's child, Roxie Lee Smith, with her trumpet solo that Roxie Lee planned to play at a school concert; had promised to run 3 complicated errands for her mother: and had arranged to attend a 4-H meeting in garden city with her father. (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 18)

    Explanation: The author uses a consistent use of conjunctions in this quote for listing purposes.
  126. Premise; major, minor
    Definition: Two parts of syllogism. The concluding sentence of a syllogism takes its predicate from the major premise and its subject from the minor premise

    Example: "The first officer and the engineer would have bowed to the captain.'Cheo eom coeb seom nida' the co pilot might have said, respectfully. It is first time to meet you." (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 214)

    Explanation: The first sentence is Chinese and the second sentence explains what it says.
  127. Pronoun
    • Definition: A word used to replace a noun or noun phrase. 
    • Example: "I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham since you have been influenced by the view which argues against 'outsiders coming in'" (MLJ, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 2).
    • Explanation: This is a pronoun because MLK uses "you" to replace clergymen in the sentence when describing their influenced on Birmingham. 
  128. Propaganda
    Definition: A negative term for writing designed to sway opinion rather than present information

    Example: "Fortunately for her, the interview consists almost entirely of a four page 'opinon survery' with no right or wrong answers." (Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, pg. 38)

    Explanation: The author uses quotes around certain words to show her negative feelings toward this survey.
  129. Purpose
    • Definition: One's intention or objective ina  speech or piece of writing.
    • Example: ""Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas...I want to be and have my answers for your statements in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 1).
    • Explanation: This purpose explains MLK's intention of the speech; which was to pause and answer criticism of his work. 
  130. Refute
    Definition: To discredit an argument, particularly a counterargument

    Example: "Any law that degrades human personality is unjust because segregation distorts..." (MLK Jr. Letter from Birmingham Jail)

    Explanation: The use of refuting greatly improves an argument and makes it much stronger.
  131. Rhetoric
    Definition: The study of effective, persuasive language use; according to Aristotle, use of the "available means of persuasion."

    Example: "Well, it was a delicate situation. It appeared that legally we weren't obliged to pay, but morally- that was another matter." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 71)

    Explanation: Capote italicized certain words to persuade the family.
  132. Rhetorical Triangle
    Definition: A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the realationship among the speaker, the subject, and the audience

    Example: " The rhetorical situation is a shorthand phrase for this entire set of concerns, and it can be depicted as a simple triangle." (Lunsford, Everything's an Argument, pg. 35)

    Explanation: This is a summary of what the triangle is, it shows the relationship between the subject, speaker and audience.
  133. Rhetorical Question
    • Definition: A question asked more to produce an effect thatn to summon an answer.
    • Example: "When else can do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell other than write long letters, think long thoughts and pray long prayers?" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 370).
    • Explanation: MLK is not really asking the people to answer these questions, they are more to point out the obvious and make things clear. 
  134. Satire
    Definition: An ironic, sarcastive, or witty composition that claims to argue for something, but actually argues with it.

    Example: "Their skins appeared so coarse and uneven, so variously colored, when I saw them near, with a mole here and there as broad as a trencher, and hairs, hanging from it thicker than pocket threads, to say nothing further concerning the rest of their persons." (Swift, Gulliver's Travels, Everythings an Argument)

    Explanation: This is an example of satire because the author expected one thing while looking at the women, but when he saw her close up, they realized that she looked much different.
  135. Scheme
    Definition: A pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect.

    Example: "I began to think something would be done about whites killing, beating, and misusing negroes. I knew I was going to be apart of whatever happened." (Moody, Coming of Age, pg. 276)

    Explanation: She uses a powerful words and language to produce the desired tone.
  136. Sentence patterns
    Definition: The arrangement or independent and dependent clauses into known sentence constructions- such as simple, compound, complex, or coumpund-complex

    Example: "I'd think about Hawaii, about a movie i'd seen with Dorthy la mour, I wanted to go there where the sun was." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 133)

    Explanation: This is a complex sentence produced with independent clauses
  137. Sentence variety
    Definition: Using a variety of sentence patterns to create a desired effect.

    Example: "I never saw this great-uncle, but i'm supposed to look like him- with the special reference to the rather hard-boiled painting that hangs in fathers office." (Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, pg. 3)

    Explanation: The word choice and they way the authors arranges his sentences shows sentence variety because they are always changing. He chooses to keep a variety so the reader doesnt become bored.
  138. Simile
    • Definition: A figure of speech that uses "like" or "as" to compare two things. 
    • Example: "Immune thanks for the advice feeling like I've just been stripped naked by the navy enforcer of some ancient supplant laws" (Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, pg. 35).
    • Explanation: This is a simile because she compares how she feels with the word "like". 
  139. Simple Sentence
    Definition: A statement containing a subject and predicate; an independent clause

    Example: "I started stealing matches from dad." (Jeanette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 15)

    Explanation: This is a simple sentence because it contains a subject and a predicate.
  140. Source
    Definition: A book, article, person, or other resource consulted for information

    Example: "The biggest company secret: workers challenge employer practices on pay confidentiality." New York Times, July 28, 2000." (Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, pg. 207)

    Explanation: The author provides a source or a footnote to where she got her information that she provided to the reader.
  141. Speaker
    • Definition: A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspecitve is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing.
    • Example: "Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If i sought to answer all the criticism that crosses my desk my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence..." (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 1).
    • Explanation: The speaker of the piece is MLK which resents himself and gives his perspective on injustice in Birmingham.
  142. Stram man
    Definition: A logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refuatable position; misrepresenting, then attacking and opponent's position.

    Example: "We will restore science to its rightful place,"  Obama said at his inauguration. Really? Where had science been? (Fred Barnes, "Obama's First Month", Everythings an Argument, Pg. 533)

    Explanation: This is an example of the straw man fallacy because obama is making and solving a problem that was really never there in the first place
  143. Stream of Consciousness
    • Definition: A literary style in which one's thoughts and feelings are depicted in a continuous and uninterrupted flow.
    • Example: "But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mother and father at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim;..." (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 14).
    • Explanation: The stream of consciousness because it reveals the flow of MLK's thoughts on segregation and his experiences.
  144. Style
    Definition: The distinctive quality of speech or writing created by the selection and arrangement of words and figures of speech.

    Example: "His explanations, as heartbreaking as they are, are also a little strange...Making allowances in the name of helping someone stay in school is what professors do all the time." (Gladwell, The Outliers, pg. 97)

    Explanation: He uses multiple sentences to get his point across to the reader.
  145. Subject
    • Definition: In rhetoric, the topic addressed in a piece of writing.
    • Example: "I am in Birmingham because injustice is here" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 2).
    • Explanation: This is subject because MLK's speech is to explain injustice in Birmingham and that's what he addressed in the example. 
  146. Subordiante Clause
    • Definition: Created by a subordination conjunction, a clause that modifies and independent clause.
    • Example: "While confined here in Birmingham city jail..." (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 265). 
    • Explanation: MLK writes a fourteen page letter when he is in jail. The subordinate clause in this sentence is Birmingham Jail. 
  147. Subordination
    Definition: The dependence of one synatactical element on another in a sentence.

    Example: "While the people are merly souls, the souls are people." (Capote, In Cold Blood, pg. 295)

    Explanation: Both elements have to be present in this quote for the sentence to make sense, they rely on each other.
  148. Syllogism
    • Definition: A form of deductive reasoning in which the conclusion is supported by a mojor and minor premise.
    • Example: "You don't love me or you'd buy me a bicycle!" (Andrea A. Lunsford, Everything's an Argument, Pg. 509).
    • Explanation: There is no connection between love and buying bicycles in the sentence you can't express love by buying something.
  149. Symbol
    • Definition: A person, place, object, or activity that represents something beyond itself.
    • Example: "Like build the glass castle. All of dad's engineering skills and mathematical genius were coming together in one special project. A great big house he was going to build" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 25).
    • Explanation: In The Glass Castle Jeannette uses the "glass castle" to represent her family that it starts out strong and slowly deteriorates as the Walls family does. 
  150. Synecdoche
    • Definition: A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole (for example, ABCs for alphabet) or the whole for a part ("England won the World Cup in 1966").
    • Example: "Paul left his village of tarts and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco-Roman world, so I am compelled to carry the gospel of freedom" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" pg. 269).
    • Explanation: This is a synecdoche because MLK uses Paul and his trip to compare himself to bring home ideas of civil rights. 
  151. Syntax
    Definition: sentence structure

    Example: "I didnt speak of it to my husband or children, not ever. So you see, I have my own story, and increasinly in my old age it weighs on me." (Orleanna, The Poisonwood bible, pg. 8)

    Explanation: The use of longer sentences followed by a short sentence makes them much more impactful with the sentence pausing effect.
  152. Synthesize
    Definition: Combining or bringing together two or more elements to produce something more complex.

    Example: "Purposefully and single-mindedly playing their instruments with the intent to get better." (Gladwell, Outliers, pg. 39)

    Explanation: The two elements that the author brings together is purposefully and single- mindedly.
  153. Theme
    • Definition: The central idea or message in a work of literature, but not to be confused with the suject. This is a percepiton about life or human nature. Sometimes this is directly stated, and somethimes implied.
    • Example: "But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 3).
    • Explanation: This is theme because the theme is what MLK focuses on his whole speech which is the injustice in Birmingham. 
  154. Thesis
    • Definition: The central idea in a work to which all parts of the work refer.
    • Example: "But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticism are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 1). 
    • Explanation: This is a thesis because MLK states his central idea that he feels clergy men are good will and hopes to answer their statements made. 
  155. Thesis Statement
    • Definition: A statement of the central idea in a work, may be explicit or implicit.
    • Example: "But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticism are sincerely set forth...I hope will be patient and reasonable terms" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 1).
    • Explanation: MLK states his central idea that he feels clergymen are of good will and hopes to answer their statement made against him. 
  156. Tone
    • Definition: The speaker's attitude toward the subject or audience.
    • Example: "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" (MLK, "Letter from Birmingham Jail" para. 4)
    • Explanation: This embodies tone because MLK attitude of hatred to injustice is represented.
  157. Trope
    Definition: Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure of speech.

    Example: "Ascending from boiler makers to martinis before booze beat out ambition." (Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed, pg. 18)

    Explanation: The author provides a metaphor to show artful diction.
  158. Topic Sentece
    Definition: A sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs
  159. Understatement
    • Definition: Lack of emphasis in a statement or point; restraint in language often used from ironic effect.
    • Example: "'It's good we raised you young'uns to be tough'; dad said" (Jeannette Walls, The Glass Castle, pg. 150).
    • Explanation: These children are much more "tough" from what they have to put up with as kids.
  160. Voice
    Definition: In grammar, a term for the realationship between a verb and a noun. In rhetoric, a distrinctive quality in the syle and tone of writing.
  161. Zeugma
    • Definition: A construction in which one word modifies or governs- often in differnt, somethings incongruent ways- two or more words in a sentence.
    • Example: "Bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations" (JFK, "JFK Inaugural Address" pg. 201). 
    • Explanation: A construction of the sentence in which one word modifies JFK's talks about his nation.