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What do we mean by demographic transition?
Demographic transition means transition from high birth/death rate to low birth/death rate.
What are the trends in pop growth rates in the different stages in the demographic transition in Europe?
- -At stage1: population growth rate is low
- -at stage2 and 3: population growth starts and accelerates until both birth and death rates become low.
- At stage4: population growth slows down.
What are the characteristic features in birth, death rates and rates of natural increase in the different stages of the demographic transition in Europe?
- The transition is divided into 4(5) stages. -Stage1: pre-transition stage, high birth rate, but fluctuating death rate, low natural increase rate.
- -Stage2: declining death rates and continuing high birth rate, high natural increase rate.
- -Stage3: declining birth and death rate, high (but decreasing?) natural increase rate.
- -Stage4: low death rate and low but fluctuating birth rate, low natural increase rate.
- -Stage5: birth rate further declining, death rate fluctuating or increasing, low natural increase rate)
What were the developments bringing about the fertility transition in Europe?
- -Decline in infant and child mortality (→people adjust their behaviors to the future), social reforms (e.g. laws against child labor),
- -improvements in standard of living, -democratization/ advocacy of birth control-emancipation of women,
- -changes in aspiration,
- -changes in cultural value(smaller size family became popular)
What were the developments bringing about the mortality transition in Europe?
- -Improvement in nutrition(secure food supply, improved quality of food, vegetable and fruits became a part of people's diet, agricultural improvement),
- -improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene (purified water supply, better clothing→prevention of infectious diseases), -medical advancements(identification and preventive vaccines and antibiotics for infectious diseases)
What are some of the reasons for the dramatic fluctuations in death rates in the pre-transition stage in Europe?
- -The plague,
- -epidemics of infectious diseases,
- -poor nutrition
What are the differences in the fertility and mortality transition between Europe and the Developing World?
- -Mortality transition in developing countries was much faster than that in Europe, but fertility rate remained high because of high IMR.
- -In addition, there was cultural difference in value that determines how many children people want to have (difference in reproduction decision, children= source of labor in some areas).
How was the mortality transition in the developing world been accomplished?
- -Mortality transition in developing world has been accomplished with the support from WTO and developed countries.
- -There was medical intervention from outside, and WTO did campaign for children vaccination in order to help children survive.