Demographic transition means transition from high birth/death rate to low birth/death rate.
What are the trends in pop growth rates in the different stages in the demographic transition in Europe?
-At stage1: population growth rate is low
-at stage2 and 3: population growth starts and accelerates until both birth and death rates become low.
At stage4: population growth slows down.
What are the characteristic features in birth, death rates and rates of natural increase in the different stages of the demographic transition in Europe?
The transition is divided into 4(5) stages. -Stage1: pre-transition stage, high birth rate, but fluctuating death rate, low natural increase rate.
-Stage2: declining death rates and continuing high birth rate, high natural increase rate.
-Stage3: declining birth and death rate, high (but decreasing?) natural increase rate.
-Stage4: low death rate and low but fluctuating birth rate, low natural increase rate.
-Stage5: birth rate further declining, death rate fluctuating or increasing, low natural increase rate)
What were the developments bringing about the fertility transition in Europe?
-Decline in infant and child mortality (→people adjust their behaviors to the future), social reforms (e.g. laws against child labor),
-improvements in standard of living, -democratization/ advocacy of birth control-emancipation of women,
-changes in aspiration,
-changes in cultural value(smaller size family became popular)
What were the developments bringing about the mortality transition in Europe?
-Improvement in nutrition(secure food supply, improved quality of food, vegetable and fruits became a part of people's diet, agricultural improvement),
-improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene (purified water supply, better clothing→prevention of infectious diseases), -medical advancements(identification and preventive vaccines and antibiotics for infectious diseases)
What are some of the reasons for the dramatic fluctuations in death rates in the pre-transition stage in Europe?
-epidemics of infectious diseases,
What are the differences in the fertility and mortality transition between Europe and the Developing World?
-Mortality transition in developing countries was much faster than that in Europe, but fertility rate remained high because of high IMR.
-In addition, there was cultural difference in value that determines how many children people want to have (difference in reproduction decision, children= source of labor in some areas).
How was the mortality transition in the developing world been accomplished?
-Mortality transition in developing world has been accomplished with the support from WTO and developed countries.
-There was medical intervention from outside, and WTO did campaign for children vaccination in order to help children survive.