Geo 143: Demographic Transition in Europe

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Geo 143: Demographic Transition in Europe
2013-05-07 03:57:20

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  1. What do we mean by demographic transition?
    Demographic transition means transition from high birth/death rate to low birth/death rate.
  2. What are the trends in pop growth rates in the different stages in the demographic transition in Europe?
    • -At stage1: population growth rate is low
    • -at stage2 and 3: population growth starts and accelerates until both birth and death rates become low.
    • At stage4: population growth slows down.
  3. What are the characteristic features in birth, death rates and rates of natural increase in the different stages of the demographic transition in Europe?
    • The transition is divided into 4(5) stages. -Stage1: pre-transition stage, high birth rate, but fluctuating death rate, low natural increase rate. 
    • -Stage2: declining death rates and continuing high birth rate, high natural increase rate.
    • -Stage3: declining birth and death rate, high (but decreasing?) natural increase rate.
    • -Stage4: low death rate and low but fluctuating birth rate, low natural increase rate.
    • -Stage5: birth rate further declining, death rate fluctuating or increasing, low natural increase rate)
  4. What were the developments bringing about the fertility transition in Europe?
    • -Decline in infant and child mortality (→people adjust their behaviors to the future), social reforms (e.g. laws against child labor),
    • -improvements in standard of living, -democratization/ advocacy of birth control-emancipation of women,
    • -changes in aspiration,
    • -changes in cultural value(smaller size family became popular)
  5. What were the developments bringing about the mortality transition in Europe?
    • -Improvement in nutrition(secure food supply, improved quality of food, vegetable and fruits became a part of people's diet, agricultural improvement),
    • -improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene (purified water supply, better clothing→prevention of infectious diseases), -medical advancements(identification and preventive vaccines and antibiotics for infectious diseases)
  6. What are some of the reasons for the dramatic fluctuations in death rates in the pre-transition stage in Europe?
    • -The plague,
    • -epidemics of infectious diseases,
    • -wars,
    • -famines
    • -poor nutrition
  7. What are the differences in the fertility and mortality transition between Europe and the Developing World?
    • -Mortality transition in developing countries was much faster than that in Europe, but fertility rate remained high because of high IMR.
    • -In addition, there was cultural difference in value that determines how many children people want to have (difference in reproduction decision, children= source of labor in some areas).
  8. How was the mortality transition in the developing world been accomplished?
    • -Mortality transition in developing world has been accomplished with the support from WTO and developed countries.
    • -There was medical intervention from outside, and WTO did campaign for children vaccination in order to help children survive.