What are the causes of population change according to demographic transition theorists?
-Change in economic and social conditions,
-change from agrarian based society to modern industrialized society
What are the major hypotheses of the demographic transition theory?
1. high fertility is a reaction to high infant/child mortality
2. the rise in the standard of living produces motivation for smaller families
3. fertility and mortality declines are irreversible
What empirical evidence exists that supports the demographic transition theory?
-Observation of demographic changes in Europe since the mid-18th century.
-Demographic transition model get it right, improvement in standard of living encourages people to have fewer children
What limits the generalizability of the demographic transition theory?
-It says transition is irreversible, but actually it is not irreversible because there might be some diseases that people cannot control.
-And the theory disregards role of culture in fertility decisions.There are countries, especially oil rich countries which have experienced dramatic economic growth but birth rates and fertility rates have not gone down due to religious beliefs.
-It doesn't not take cultural and religion beliefs in influencing fertility decisions.
What are the policy implications of this theory?
-Foster economic development to reduce fertility
-Foster improvement in health care to decrease mortality
-Developing infrastructure, making the most of natural resources, education,
-Try to address to population change through other policies such as economic policies