Geo 143: Global Health and Mortality

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Geo 143: Global Health and Mortality
2013-05-07 07:05:29

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  1. How have causes of death changed during the epidemiologic transition?
    -decline in communicable/infectious diseases and increase in non-communcable/chronic degenerative diseases
  2. What is meant by healthy life expectancy and why is this an important measure?
    • -measure combining the length and quality of life
    • -calculates how long an individual can expect to live free of Disability and other impairments
  3. What are the major causes of death in the contemporary US?
    • -Noncommunicable conditions
    • 1. Heart disease 
    • 2. Cancer
  4. What are the major causes of death in the developing world?
    • -Non-Communicable, except sub-Saharan Africa
    • 1. Respiratory 
    • 2. HIV
    • 3. Tuberculosis
  5. Which are some of the major infectious killers in the developing world?
    • 1. Acute respiratory infections
    • 2. AIDS
  6. What are the different types of agents and types of infections? For example, which agents cause Malaria, TB, influenza, cholera, and how are they transmitted?
    • 1. Cholera
    • -bacterial
    • -water-born
    • -diarrheal disease
    • -Asia,Africa
    • 2. Measles
    • -viral
    • -person to person
    • -global, but most deaths in low-income families
    • 3. TB
    • -bacterial
    • -person to person
    • -air born
    • -global, but most deaths in low-income countries
    • 4. Malaria
    • -parasitic
    • -insect born:mosquito
    • -endemic in tropics and subtropics
    • 5. Dengue fever
    • -viral
    • -insect born: mosquito
    • -endemic in tropics
    • 6. Schistosomiasis
    • -parasitic
    • -water born
    • -worm disease:snails intermediate host
    • -Africa, Arabian Peninsula
    • 7. HIV
    • -viral
    • -person to person
    • -Global, most deaths in low-income countries
    • 8. Influenza
    • -Viral
    • -person to person
    • -Global, most deaths in low-income countries
  7. How has life expectancy changed in developed and developing countries during the past 50 years?
    Life expectancy increased in both
  8. What is the gap in life expectancy between countries of the developed and developing world in the contemporary period? (see also World Population Data Sheet)
    78yrs to 59yrs
  9. What are the reasons for the decrease in life expectancy in some African countries?
  10. What can be done to prevent deaths from infectious diseases, especially in the less developed world? For example, how can deaths from malaria, TB and other infectious diseases be prevented?
    • 1. Childhood vaccinations
    • 2. Bednets
    • 3. Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses
    • 4. Antibiotics
    • 5. HIV prevention strategies
  11. What are some of the obstacles for the prevention of infectious diseases in less developed world?
    • 1. Lack of access to life-saving drugs-poverty
    • 2. Government in low-income countries-lack financial resources
    • 3. Donor assistance from Global North is too small despite major support
  12. Why have available life saving drugs for infectious diseases lost their effectiveness?
    • 1. Microbial adaptation and resistance
    • -widespreas misuse of anti-microbial drugs
    • -agricultural practices: antibiotics in livestock feed
  13. Which are the age groups are most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic?
    -90% of AIDS deaths are between 20-50 years old
  14. Which world regions had the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases at the beginning of the 21st century?
    • 1. Sub-Saharan Africa
    • -60% women
    • 2. South and South-East Asia
  15. Which world regions had the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates at the beginning of the 21st century?
    1. Sub-Saharan Africa
  16. What are the factors and conditions that have contributed to the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in some African and Asian countries?
    • 1. Cultural and sexual practices
    • 2. Sexual slavery
    • 3. Insufficient protection of blood supply
    • 4. Health care practices
    • 5. Lack of education about disease and spread
    • 6. Stigma associated with AIDS
    • 7. Silence and denial by leaders
  17. Is HIV/AIDS the leading infectious killer in the less developed world?
  18. What are the socio-demographic and economic consequences of the AIDS epidemic in less developed countries?
    • 1. Decrease in life expectancy 
    • 2. Increase in infant and child mortality
  19. What are some of the programs and measures that have been put in place to control the spread of HIV in less developed countries? Or in other words, what are some of the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies?
    • 1. Education
    • 2. Testing and couseling
    • 3. Free distribution of condoms, microbicides
    • 4. Male circumcision
    • 5. Support from rich countries
    • 6. Antiretroviral Therapy
    • 7. AIDS research
    • 8. Generic ARVs
  20. How does access to AIDS treatment drugs, especially antiretroviral drugs, differ between the developed and less developed world?
    • 1. Developed
    • -easy to access
    • 2. Less developed
    • -hard to access
  21. What are the reasons for lack of access to antiretroviral drugs for people with AIDS in the less developed world?
    • -Not on the list of essential life saving drugs
    • -TRIPS agreement
  22. What is the TRIPS agreement and why is it important in discussions about access to antiretroviral drugs in less developed countries?
    • -Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property rights
    • -requires protection of intellectual property rights(Patent)
    • -Developed countries that are members of WTO, must comply with TRIPS
    • -ARVs not on list of essential live saving drugs
  23. Why has the Brazil model for AIDS prevention and treatment been so successful?
    • -government works with its citizens and does
    • not ridicule and socially isolate people living with AIDS/HIV.
    • -Various citizen groups and political figures work together and push for the proper measures.
    • -Also, Brazil promotes the use of condoms, becoming a world leader in condom
    • distribution.
    • -Brazil manufactures its own generic drugs which make medications more accessible and affordable.