ISA 406 FINAL
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the step-by-step activities, processes, tools, quality standards,
controls, and deliverables that are defined for the entire project.
Doing the thing right
Doing the right thing
a systematic process
for acquiring, creating, synthesizing, sharing, and using information, insights
and experiences to transform ideas into business value
a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique
product, service or result.
the application of knowledge, skill, tools and techniques to project to meet project requirement
Relationship between scope, schedule and budget and their impact on project goals and expectation
A collection of logical stages that maps the life of a project from its beginning to end in order to define, build and deliver the product or project
Project life cycle
A tangible and verifiable product of work.
Each phases should provide at least one of this thing
Represents the sequential phases or stages in information system follows throughout its useful life
System development life cycle (SDLC)
Identify and respond to a problem or opportunity. Ensure scope, budget, schedule, tech and methods are in place.
Meet stakeholder specify specific needs and requirements
Design the network, hardware configuration, database, user interface and application program.
Development of system, testing, installation, training, support, and documentation.
Document both reasons for success and failure can be valuable assets if maintained and used properly.
Simply, doing things in the most efficient and effective manner.
Work to be accomplished that is determined directly by the project's goal
It may arise from the estimation process or from the fact that a key member of the project team could leave in the middle of the project
It could arise from dependencies on other contractors or vendors
A form of risk that we introduce into the project in terms of forecasts or predictions
It often requested to fix any discovered errors (i.e. bugs) within the system, to add any features that were not incorporated into the original design, or to adjust to a changing business environment. Support, in terms of a call center or help desk, may also be in place to help users on an as-needed basis.
Maintenance and support
Refers to a method of a managing very complex and very uncertain project. Extreme project management differs from traditional project management mainly in its open, elastic and undeterministic approach. The main focus of XPM is on the human side of project management (e.g. managing project stakeholders), rather than on the intricate scheduling techniques and heavy formalism.
Extreme Project Management
Presented a set of standard terminology and guidelines for project management
PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge)
A deliverable that documents the project's goal
It provides a strategic-level plan for managing and controlling IT projects. A template for initiating, planning, and developing information system.
Key deliverable for the second phase of the IT project methodology
Provides all the tactical details concerning who will carry out the project work and when
A series of activities that produce a result
Describe and help organize the work to be accomplished by the project, while product-oriented processes focus on the creation and delivery of the product of the project. They integrated together
Project management process
The project's overall goal and measure of success
Measurable Organizational Value (MOV)
The scope defined in the project charter can take the form of a narrative description of the products or services produced by the project.
Statement of work
Focuses on the knowledge areas, processes, and controls that will support the project. These are separate sub plans or strategies that make up the project management
Logical stages that organize the project work to reduce complexity and risk
A significant event or achievement that provides evidence that the deliverable, phase, or sub phase has been completed and accepted by the project sponsor
More traditional organizational form based on organizing resources to perform specialized tasks or activities to attain goals of the organization
Functional Organizational Structure
Breadth and depth of knowledge and experience
Advantages of Functional Organizational Structure
Determining authority and responsibility
Poor Response time
Disadvantage of Functional Organizational Structure
Supports projects as the dominant form of business, often multiple at the same time. Each project is treated as a separated and relatively independent unit of an organization
Project Organizational Structure
Clear authority and responsibility
High level of integration
Advantages of Project Organizational Structure
Duplication of effort
Projectitis (Strong attachment to project & team)
Disadvantages of Project organizational structure
Combination of the vertical functional structure and the horizontal project structure. Main feature is the ability to integrate areas and resources through the organization.
Unity of command is violated due to project team members having more than one boss
Matrix organizational structure
High level of integration
Increased project focus
Advantages of Matrix Organizational Structure
Higher potential for conflict
Poorer response time
Disadvantages of Matrix Organizational Structure
Project Manager focuses on defining all of the activities of the project while functional managers determine how activities will be carried out
Project Manager focuses on coordinating project activities.
Functional Manager responsible for completing activities
Project Manager has most authority and responsibility for defining and completing project activities
Individuals, groups, or organizations that have a stake or claim in the project's outcome
Analysis to determine who should be involved in the project and understanding the role they must play. Often is an exercise rather than a formal document.
Development of a scope management plan that defines the project's scope and how it will be verified and controlled throughout the project.
A detailed scope statement that defines what work will and will not be part of the project. Will serve as a basis for all future decisions
Confirmation and formal acceptance that the project's scope is accurate, complete, and supports the MOV
Ensuring that controls are in place to manage proposed scope changes once the project's scope is set. These procedures must be communicated and understood by all stakeholders.
The processes and techniques for defining and managing scope.
Scope Management Plan
A good way to define scope boundary. This is documents the project sponsor's needs and expectations
Support the project management and IT development processes that are defined by the ITPM
Table that communicates the project's deliverables
DDT (Deliverable Definition Table)
A process model that presents representations of the system. Highest level is context level.
DFD (Data Flow Diagram)
It can provide a high level model for defining, verifying, and reaching agreement upon product scope
Use Case Diagram
People or external systems that interact with the system
Scope management process that ensures deliverables are completed according to the standards described in the DDT.
Project Scope Verification
Management of actual changes to the project's scope as ans when they occur
Scope Change Control
Team's inability to define scope
Increasing featurism. Adding small & time-consuming features post scope approval
Fundamental and significant change in project scope
Focuses on the processes necessary to develop the project schedule and ensure the project is completed on time
Project Time management
Provides hierarchical structure that outlines the activities or work that needs to be done in order to complete the project scope
WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
Significant event or achievement that provides evidence that the deliverable has been completed or that a phase is formally over
It may consist of a code or account identifier, description of work. It lists of team members, contact info, quality standards, and resources required.
Guessing estimates based on feelings rather than hard evidence
Multiple experts arriving at a consensus on a subject/issue. Each expert makes an estimate and results are compared
Box of time allocated for specific activity or task. Used effectively, this can focus effort on an important task.used inappropriately and it can burn out or frustrate team members
Schedule & cost of entire project, seeing how long it should take or how much it should cost. Allocate percentages of overall project for tasks. Works well when target objectives are reasonable realistic, and achievable. Works poorly if unrealistic or overly optimistic. It can lead to death marches.
Project teams provide estimates for activities. These are used to create overall estimate of project
Focuses on processes, tools, and methods for developing a quality approach to developing software
Provide the basis for software engineering and refers to a broad range of measurements for objectively evaluating computer software.
Focuses on the processes, procedures, and techniques to develop and manage the project budget
Project cost management
Focuses on the processes to estimate the monetary resources.
Needed to complete the project work or activities.
Estimate costs-Project cost management
Aggregating the individual cost for each of the project activities
Or work package components to determine the cost baseline
Or overall project budget
Determine Budget-Project Cost Management
Updating the project's status while monitoring the project's budget
Managing any changes to the baseline plan
Control Costs-Project Cost Management
It is an activity or task that can be worked on at the same time as another activity.
This is determined by looking at each of the possible paths and computing the total duration for each path.
Critical path analysis
The longest path in the project network and it also the shortest time in which the project can be completed.
Sometime called float, is the amount of the time an activity can be delayed, that is, take longer than expected, before it delays the project.
The project by adding resources to an activity on the critical path to shorten its duration
Expedite or crash
Doing two, or several activities that were originally planned to be completed in sequence at the same time can shorten the critical path.
People often inflate or add cushioning to their time estimates in order to give themselves a form of "Safety" to compensate for uncertainty.
Critical Chain Project Management
1. Define what resources will be needed to perform the work
2. Determining the quantity of resources that are needed
3. Defining the cost of using each resource
4. Calculating the cost of the task or activity
5. Ensuring that the resources are leveled
6. Cost of task=Estimated duration * True cost of the resource
Cost Estimation-Project Management Software Tools
Such things are rent, utilities, insurance, and other administrative cost.
It has been incurred prior to the current project
We have to build one and throw it away, in order to understand a problem or use a new technology effectively
It provide a cushion when an expected situations arise
it is based on risk and provide the project managers with a degree of flexibility
Once the project schedule and project plan are accepted, the project plan becomes the baseline plan that will be used as a yardstick, or benchmark; To track the project's actual progress with the original plan
It includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and monitoring and control on a project; most of these processes are updated throughout the project. The objectives of Project Risk Management are to increase the probability and impact of positive events, and decrease the probability and impact of events adverse to the project.
Project Risk Management
1. Risk planning
2. Risk Identification
3. Risk Assessment
4. Risk Strategies
IT project Risk Management Process
First Step and begins with having a firm commitment to the entire risk management approach from all project stakeholders
Both threats and opportunities must be identified. Risk tends to be interrelated and affect the project and its stakeholders differently
Helps the project manager and other stakeholders prioritize and formulate responses to those tasks that provide the greatest threat or opportunity to the project.
Focus on one of the following for negative risks or threats:
Accept or ignore the risk
Avoid the risk completely
Reduce the likelihood or impact of the risk (or both) if the risk occurs
Transfer the risk to someone else (i.e. Insurance)
Enhancement of the probability of the impact or probability of the positive event
Accept and take advantage
Approaches for positive risks or opportunities may include
The risk, the triggers, and strategies or responses are documented, the document then becomes the risk response plan
Risk Response Plan
Entails scanning the project environment so that both identified and unidentified threats and opportunities can be followed, much a radar screen follows ships
Risk Monitoring and Control
The risk owner must commit resources and take action once a week threat or opportunity is made known
It provides the basis for lessons learned and lays the foundation for identifying best practices
It includes the process of identifying people or organizations that have positive or negative interest in the project's outcome
A stakeholders analysis provides a basis for identifying the various stakeholders as well as the interest, influence and project role.
Focuses on getting the right information to the right stakeholders in the right format
Ensuring that clear, consistent, and timely communication satisfies the information needs and that any project stakeholder issues are resolved
Manage stakeholder Expectation
Focuses on the collection and dissemination of project information to various project stakeholders
The expected to achieve value that we actually paid for.
It provides a performance measurement that tells us how much of the budget we really should have spent for work completed so far.
Earned Value (EV)
It is the planned or budgeted cost of work scheduled for an activity or component of the WBS
Planned Value (PV)
It is the total cost incurred for completing a scheduled task or WBS component
Actually cost (AC)
A positive CV means that project is under budget, a CV of 0 would mean that the project is right on target
Cost Variance (CV)= EV-AC
A negative SV indicates that the project is behind schedule, a positive SV indicates that project is ahead of schedule, and a SV of 0 would mean that the project is right on schedule
Schedule Variance (SV) = EV- PV
A CPI > 1 indicates that we are ahead of our planned budget.
While a CPI < 1,0 means we are encountering a cost overrun.
A 1.0 CPI indicates that we are right on our planned budget.
Cost Performance Index (CPI)= EV/AC
>1.0: the project is ahead of schedule
<1.0: the project is behind schedule
=1.0: the project is right on schedule
Schedule Performance Index (SPI)= EV/PV
ETC (typical variances)=(BAC-Cumulative EV to date)/Cumulative CPI
Expected Time Complete (ETC)
EAC (typical variance)= Cumulative AC + (BAC-Cumulative EV)/ Cumulative CPI
Estimate At Completion (EAC)
Focus on specific deliverables, milestone, or phases. The purposes of a review is to not only show evidence that the project work has been completed, but also that the work has been complete according to certain standards or agreed-upon requirement
Reviews-Reporting Performance and Progress
It describes that present state of the project.
It compres the project's actual progress to the baseline plan
Statue Reporting-Reporting Performance and Progress
It tells use what the project team has accomplished.
It compares the activities or tasks that were completed to the activities or tasks outlined in the original project network
Progress Reporting-Reporting Performance and Progress
It focuses on predicting the future status or progress of the project
Forecast Reporting-Reporting Performance and Progress
It includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfying the needs for which it was undertaken
Perform quality assurance
Perform quality control
A process refers to the activities, methods, materials, and measurements used to produce the product or service
Variation attributed to common causes is considered normal variation and exists as a result of normal interactions among the various components of the process
1. Determining how the data will be classified
2. Determining whether frequency, dollar amount, or both should be used to rang the classifications
3. Collecting the data for an appropriate time period
4. Summarizing the data by rank order of the classifications from largest to smallest, from left to right
It can be useful for documenting a specific process in order to understand how products or services move through various functions or operations
The control of defects introduced by the process required to develop or create the project deliverables
The intrinsic quality of the deliverables and the satisfaction of the customer with these deliverables
The control of the project management processes to ensure that the project meet its overall goal
It is the process of adapting to change and determines our ability to handle current and future change
The 5 stages how people may react to significant changes that affect their lives
The process necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results need from outside the project team
Project procurement management
The process of identifying and documenting the projects needs that can or must be meet by acquiring products, services, or results outside of the project organization
Plan Procurements-procurement Process
The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and then negotiating and awarding a contract to a seller for a specific product or service
Conduct Procurement-Procurement process
The process of managing the relationship and contract between the buyer and seller
Administer Procurement-Procurement process
The process of completing and setting each contract or project procurement
Close Procurements-Procurement process
1. Model the way: lead by example
2. Inspire a shared vision: The leader has an exciting dream or vision that drives towards inventing the future
3. Challenge the process: Accept to challenges and be a pioneer
4. Enable others to act: Encourage collaboration and building trust among all the project stakeholders
5. Encourage the heart: rally others to carry on by encouraging the heart. Shows appreciation for people's contributions and creates a culture of celebration that recognized those accomplishments
5 practices of Exemplary Leadership
1. old system is shut down and the new system is turned on
2. effective when quick delivery is necessary or if the old system is really bad
3. can have lots of problems
Direct Cutover-Project Implementation
1.The new and old systems run concurrently for a time
2. At some point the organization completely switches over
3. Can create more stress for the users
1.System is introduced in modules or in different parts of the organization incrementally
2.May be appropriate when implementing a software system to different parts of the organization
3 approaches to project implementation
Normal-Completed as planned
Premature-Completing project early without all envisioned features/functionality
Perpetual-Never seems to end (scope changes, MOV not completely defined
Changed priorities-resources may no longer be available
5 circumstances for Project Closer
1.Implementation can be quick
2.Can be risky if system isn't fully tested
3.Places more pressure on the project team
Direct Cutover features
1. Provides a safety net or backup in case problems are encountered
2. Can increase confidence in the new system when output of old system is compared
3. Takes longer and may cost more than direct cutover approach
4. Places more pressure on the users of the system
1. Allows for an organized and managed approach for implementing system modules of system upgrades
2. Experience with early implementation can guide and make later implementations go more smoothly
3. Takes longer and may cost more than the direct cutover approach
4. Problems encountered during the early phases can impact the overall implementation schedule
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