ISA 406 FINAL

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Carrotbxh
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ISA 406 FINAL
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2013-05-07 04:21:18
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Project Management
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  1. the step-by-step activities, processes, tools, quality standards,
    controls, and deliverables that are defined for the entire project.
    Methodology
  2. Doing the thing right
    Efficiency
  3. Doing the right thing
    Effectiveness
  4. a systematic process
    for acquiring, creating, synthesizing, sharing, and using information, insights
    and experiences to transform ideas into business value
    Knowledge Management
  5. a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique
    product, service or result.
    Project
  6. the application of knowledge, skill, tools and techniques to project to meet project requirement
    Project management
  7. Relationship between scope, schedule and budget and their impact on project goals and expectation
    Triple constraint
  8. A collection of logical stages that maps the life of a project from its beginning to end in order to define, build and deliver the product or project
    Project life cycle
  9. A tangible and verifiable product of work.
    Each phases should provide at least one of this thing
    Deliverables
  10. Represents the sequential phases or stages in information system follows throughout its useful life
    System development life cycle (SDLC)
  11. Identify and respond to a problem or opportunity. Ensure scope, budget, schedule, tech and methods are in place.
    Planning
  12. Meet stakeholder specify specific needs and requirements
    Analysis
  13. Design the network, hardware configuration, database, user interface and application program.
    Desgin
  14. Development of system, testing, installation, training, support, and documentation.
    Implementation
  15. Document both reasons for success and failure can be valuable assets if maintained and used properly.
    Lessons learned
  16. Simply, doing things in the most efficient and effective manner.
    Best practices
  17. Work to be accomplished that is determined directly by the project's goal
    Scope
  18. It may arise from the estimation process or from the fact that a key member of the project team could leave in the middle of the project
    Internal risks
  19. It could arise from dependencies on other contractors or vendors
    External Risks
  20. A form of risk that we introduce into the project in terms of forecasts or predictions
    Assumptions
  21. It often requested to fix any discovered errors (i.e. bugs) within the system, to add any features that were not incorporated into the original design, or to adjust to a changing business environment. Support, in terms of a call center or help desk, may also be in place to help users on an as-needed basis.
    Maintenance and support
  22. Refers to a method of a managing very complex and very uncertain project. Extreme project management differs from traditional project management mainly in its open, elastic and undeterministic approach. The main focus of XPM is on the human side of project management (e.g. managing project stakeholders), rather than on the intricate scheduling techniques and heavy formalism.
    Extreme Project Management
  23. Presented a set of standard terminology and guidelines for project management
    PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge)
  24. A deliverable that documents the project's goal
    Business case
  25. It provides a strategic-level plan for managing and controlling IT projects. A template for initiating, planning, and developing information system.
    Methodology 2
  26. Key deliverable for the second phase of the IT project methodology
    Project Charter
  27. Provides all the tactical details concerning who will carry out the project work and when
    Project plan
  28. A series of activities that produce a result
    Process
  29. Describe and help organize the work to be accomplished by the project, while product-oriented processes focus on the creation and delivery of the product of the project. They integrated together
    Project management process
  30. The project's overall goal and measure of success
    Measurable Organizational Value (MOV)
  31. The scope defined in the project charter can take the form of a narrative description of the products or services produced by the project.
    Statement of work
  32. Focuses on the knowledge areas, processes, and controls that will support the project. These are separate sub plans or strategies that make up the project management
    Project Administration
  33. Logical stages that organize the project work to reduce complexity and risk
    Phases
  34. A significant event or achievement that provides evidence that the deliverable, phase, or sub phase has been completed and accepted by the project sponsor
    Milestone
  35. More traditional organizational form based on organizing resources to perform specialized tasks or activities to attain goals of the organization
    Functional Organizational Structure
  36. Increased Flexibility
    Breadth and depth of knowledge and experience
    Less duplication
    Advantages of Functional Organizational Structure
  37. Determining authority and responsibility
    Poor Response time
    Poor Integration
    Disadvantage of Functional Organizational Structure
  38. Supports projects as the dominant form of business, often multiple at the same time. Each project is treated as a separated and relatively independent unit of an organization
    Project Organizational Structure
  39. Clear authority and responsibility
    Improved communication
    High level of integration
    Advantages of Project Organizational Structure
  40. Project isolation
    Duplication of effort
    Projectitis (Strong attachment to project & team)
    Disadvantages of Project organizational structure
  41. Combination of the vertical functional structure and the horizontal project structure. Main feature is the ability to integrate areas and resources through the organization.
    Unity of command is violated due to project team members having more than one boss
    Matrix organizational structure
  42. High level of integration
    Improved communication
    Increased project focus
    Advantages of Matrix Organizational Structure
  43. Higher potential for conflict
    Poorer response time
    Disadvantages of Matrix Organizational Structure
  44. Project Manager focuses on defining all of the activities of the project while functional managers determine how activities will be carried out
    Balanced Matrix
  45. Project Manager focuses on coordinating project activities.
    Functional Manager responsible for completing activities
    Functional Matrix
  46. Project Manager has most authority and responsibility for defining and completing project activities
    Project Matrix
  47. Individuals, groups, or organizations that have a stake or claim in the project's outcome
    Stakeholders
  48. Analysis to determine who should be involved in the project and understanding the role they must play. Often is an exercise rather than a formal document.
    Stakeholder analysis
  49. Development of a scope management plan that defines the project's scope and how it will be verified and controlled throughout the project.
    Scope planning
  50. A detailed scope statement that defines what work will and will not be part of the project. Will serve as a basis for all future decisions
    scope definition
  51. Confirmation and formal acceptance that the project's scope is accurate, complete, and supports the MOV
    Scope Verification
  52. Ensuring that controls are in place to manage proposed scope changes once the project's scope is set. These procedures must be communicated and understood by all stakeholders.
    Scope Control
  53. The processes and techniques for defining and managing scope.
    Scope Management Plan
  54. A good way to define scope boundary. This is documents the project sponsor's needs and expectations
    Scope Statement
  55. Support the project management and IT development processes that are defined by the ITPM
    Project-oriented Deliverables
  56. Table that communicates the project's deliverables
    DDT (Deliverable Definition Table)
  57. A process model that presents representations of the system. Highest level is context level.
    DFD (Data Flow Diagram)
  58. It can provide a high level model for defining, verifying, and reaching agreement upon product scope
    Use Case Diagram
  59. People or external systems that interact with the system
    Actors
  60. Scope management process that ensures deliverables are completed according to the standards described in the DDT.
    Project Scope Verification
  61. Management of actual changes to the project's scope as ans when they occur
    Scope Change Control
  62. Team's inability to define scope
    Scope grope
  63. Increasing featurism. Adding small & time-consuming features post scope approval
    Scope creep
  64. Fundamental and significant change in project scope
    Scope leap
  65. Focuses on the processes necessary to develop the project schedule and ensure the project is completed on time
    Project Time management
  66. Provides hierarchical structure that outlines the activities or work that needs to be done in order to complete the project scope
    WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
  67. Significant event or achievement that provides evidence that the deliverable has been completed or that a phase is formally over
    Milestone
  68. It may consist of a code or account identifier, description of work. It lists of team members, contact info, quality standards, and resources required.
    WBS Dictionary
  69. Guessing estimates based on feelings rather than hard evidence
    Guesstimate
  70. Multiple experts arriving at a consensus on a subject/issue. Each expert makes an estimate and results are compared
    Delphi Technique
  71. Box of time allocated for specific activity or task. Used effectively, this can focus effort on an important task.used inappropriately and it can burn out or frustrate team members
    Time Boxing
  72. Schedule & cost of entire project, seeing how long it should take or how much it should cost. Allocate percentages of overall project for tasks. Works well when target objectives are reasonable realistic, and achievable. Works poorly if unrealistic or overly optimistic. It can lead to death marches.
    Top-Down Estimating
  73. Project teams provide estimates for activities. These are used to create overall estimate of project
    Bottom-up estimating
  74. Focuses on processes, tools, and methods for developing a quality approach to developing software
    Software engineering
  75. Provide the basis for software engineering and refers to a broad range of measurements for objectively evaluating computer software.
    Metrics
  76. Focuses on the processes, procedures, and techniques to develop and manage the project budget
    Project cost management
  77. Focuses on the processes to estimate the monetary resources.
    Needed to complete the project work or activities.
    Estimate costs-Project cost management
  78. Aggregating the individual cost for each of the project activities
    Or work package components to determine the cost baseline
    Or overall project budget
    Determine Budget-Project Cost Management
  79. Updating the project's status while monitoring the project's budget
    AND
    Managing any changes to the baseline plan
    Control Costs-Project Cost Management
  80. It is an activity or task that can be worked on at the same time as another activity.
    Parallel
  81. This is determined by looking at each of the possible paths and computing the total duration for each path.
    Critical path analysis
  82. The longest path in the project network and it also the shortest time in which the project can be completed.
    Critical path
  83. Sometime called float, is the amount of the time an activity can be delayed, that is, take longer than expected, before it delays the project.
    Slack
  84. The project by adding resources to an activity on the critical path to shorten its duration
    Expedite or crash
  85. Doing two, or several activities that were originally planned to be completed in sequence at the same time can shorten the critical path.
    Fast tracking
  86. People often inflate or add cushioning to their time estimates in order to give themselves a form of "Safety" to compensate for uncertainty.
    Critical Chain Project Management
  87. 1. Define what resources will be needed to perform the work
    2. Determining the quantity of resources that are needed
    3. Defining the cost of using each resource
    4. Calculating the cost of the task or activity
    5. Ensuring that the resources are leveled
    6. Cost of task=Estimated duration * True cost of the resource
    Cost Estimation-Project Management Software Tools
  88. Such things are rent, utilities, insurance, and other administrative cost.
    Indirect cost
  89. It has been incurred prior to the current project
    Suck cost
  90. We have to build one and throw it away, in order to understand a problem or use a new technology effectively
    Learning curve
  91. It provide a cushion when an expected situations arise
    Reserves
  92. it is based on risk and provide the project managers with a degree of flexibility
    Contingency reserve
  93. Once the project schedule and project plan are accepted, the project plan becomes the baseline plan that will be used as a yardstick, or benchmark; To track the project's actual progress with the original plan
    Baseline plan
  94. It includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and monitoring and control on a project; most of these processes are updated throughout the project. The objectives of Project Risk Management are to increase the probability and impact of positive events, and decrease the probability and impact of events adverse to the project.
    Project Risk Management
  95. 1. Risk planning
    2. Risk Identification
    3. Risk Assessment
    4. Risk Strategies
    IT project Risk Management Process
  96. First Step and begins with having a firm commitment to the entire risk management approach from all project stakeholders
    Risk planning
  97. Both threats and opportunities must be identified. Risk tends to be interrelated and affect the project and its stakeholders differently
    Risk Identification
  98. Helps the project manager and other stakeholders prioritize and formulate responses to those tasks that provide the greatest threat or opportunity to the project.
    Risk Assessment
  99. Focus on one of the following for negative risks or threats:
    Accept or ignore the risk
    Avoid the risk completely
    Reduce the likelihood or impact of the risk (or both) if the risk occurs
    Transfer the risk to someone else (i.e. Insurance)
    Risk Strategies
  100. Exploitation
    Sharing ownership
    Enhancement of the probability of the impact or probability of the positive event
    Accept and take advantage
    Approaches for positive risks or opportunities may include
  101. The risk, the triggers, and strategies or responses are documented, the document then becomes the risk response plan
    Risk Response Plan
  102. Entails scanning the project environment so that both identified and unidentified threats and opportunities can be followed, much a radar screen follows ships
    Risk Monitoring and Control
  103. The risk owner must commit resources and take action once a week threat or opportunity is made known
    Risk Response
  104. It provides the basis for lessons learned and lays the foundation for identifying best practices
    Rysk Evaluation
  105. It includes the process of identifying people or organizations that have positive or negative interest in the project's outcome
    Identify stakeholders
  106. A stakeholders analysis provides a basis for identifying the various stakeholders as well as the interest, influence and project role.
    Plan communications
  107. Focuses on getting the right information to the right stakeholders in the right format
    Distribute information
  108. Ensuring that clear, consistent, and timely communication satisfies the information needs and that any project stakeholder issues are resolved
    Manage stakeholder Expectation
  109. Focuses on the collection and dissemination of project information to various project stakeholders
    Report Performance
  110. The expected to achieve value that we actually paid for.
    It provides a performance measurement that tells us how much of the budget we really should have spent for work completed so far.
    Earned Value (EV)
  111. It is the planned or budgeted cost of work scheduled for an activity or component of the WBS
    Planned Value (PV)
  112. It is the total cost incurred for completing a scheduled task or WBS component
    Actually cost (AC)
  113. A positive CV means that project is under budget, a CV of 0 would mean that the project is right on target
    Cost Variance (CV)= EV-AC
  114. A negative SV indicates that the project is behind schedule, a positive SV indicates that project is ahead of schedule, and a SV of 0 would mean that the project is right on schedule
    Schedule Variance (SV) = EV- PV
  115. A CPI > 1 indicates that we are ahead of our planned budget.
    While a CPI < 1,0 means we are encountering a cost overrun.
    A 1.0 CPI indicates that we are right on our planned budget.
    Cost Performance Index (CPI)= EV/AC
  116. >1.0: the project is ahead of schedule
    <1.0: the project is behind schedule
    =1.0: the project is right on schedule
    Schedule Performance Index (SPI)= EV/PV
  117. ETC (typical variances)=(BAC-Cumulative EV to date)/Cumulative CPI
    Expected Time Complete (ETC)
  118. EAC (typical variance)= Cumulative AC + (BAC-Cumulative EV)/ Cumulative CPI
    Estimate At Completion (EAC)
  119. Focus on specific deliverables, milestone, or phases. The purposes of a review is to not only show evidence that the project work has been completed, but also that the work has been complete according to certain standards or agreed-upon requirement
    Reviews-Reporting Performance and Progress
  120. It describes that present state of the project.
    It compres the project's actual progress to the baseline plan
    Statue Reporting-Reporting Performance and Progress
  121. It tells use what the project team has accomplished.
    It compares the activities or tasks that were completed to the activities or tasks outlined in the original project network
    Progress Reporting-Reporting Performance and Progress
  122. It focuses on predicting the future status or progress of the project
    Forecast Reporting-Reporting Performance and Progress
  123. It includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfying the needs for which it was undertaken
    Plan quality
    Perform quality assurance
    Perform quality control
    PQM
  124. A process refers to the activities, methods, materials, and measurements used to produce the product or service
    Process
  125. Variation attributed to common causes is considered normal variation and exists as a result of normal interactions among the various components of the process
    Control Charts
  126. 1. Determining how the data will be classified
    2. Determining whether frequency, dollar amount, or both should be used to rang the classifications
    3. Collecting the data for an appropriate time period 
    4. Summarizing the data by rank order of the classifications from largest to smallest, from left to right
    Pareto Diagram
  127. It can be useful for documenting a specific process in order to understand how products or services move through various functions or operations
    Flow charts
  128. The control of defects introduced by the process required to develop or create the project deliverables
    Process-Quality Metric
  129. The intrinsic quality of the deliverables and the satisfaction of the customer with these deliverables
    Product-Quality Metric
  130. The control of the project management processes to ensure that the project meet its overall goal
    Project-Quality Metric
  131. It is the process of adapting to change and determines our ability to handle current and future change
    Assimilating
  132. Denial
    Anger
    Bargaining
    Depression
    Acceptance
    The 5 stages how people may react to significant changes that affect their lives
  133. The process necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results need from outside the project team
    Project procurement management
  134. The process of identifying and documenting the projects needs that can or must be meet by acquiring products, services, or results outside of the project organization
    Plan Procurements-procurement Process
  135. The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and then negotiating and awarding a contract to a seller for a specific product or service
    Conduct Procurement-Procurement process
  136. The process of managing the relationship and contract between the buyer and seller
    Administer Procurement-Procurement process
  137. The process of completing and setting each contract or project procurement
    Close Procurements-Procurement process
  138. 1. Model the way: lead by example
    2. Inspire a shared vision: The leader has an exciting dream or vision that drives towards inventing the future
    3. Challenge the process: Accept to challenges and be a pioneer
    4. Enable others to act: Encourage collaboration and building trust among all the project stakeholders
    5. Encourage the heart: rally others to carry on by encouraging the heart. Shows appreciation for people's contributions and creates a culture of celebration that recognized those accomplishments
    5 practices of Exemplary Leadership
  139. 1. old system is shut down and the new system is turned on
    2. effective when quick delivery is necessary or if the old system is really bad
    3. can have lots of problems
    Direct Cutover-Project Implementation
  140. 1.The new and old systems run concurrently for a time
    2. At some point the organization completely switches over
    3. Can create more stress for the users
    Parallel-Project implementation
  141. 1.System is introduced in modules or in different parts of the organization incrementally
    2.May be appropriate when implementing a software system to different parts of the organization
    Phased-Project Implementation
  142. 1.Direct Cutover
    2.Parallel
    3.Phased
    3 approaches to project implementation
  143. Normal-Completed as planned
    Premature-Completing project early without all envisioned features/functionality
    Perpetual-Never seems to end (scope changes, MOV not completely defined
    Failed
    Changed priorities-resources may no longer be available
    5 circumstances for Project Closer
  144. 1.Implementation can be quick
    2.Can be risky if system isn't fully tested
    3.Places more pressure on the project team
    Direct Cutover features
  145. 1. Provides a safety net or backup in case problems are encountered
    2. Can increase confidence in the new system when output of old system is compared
    3. Takes longer and may cost more than direct cutover approach
    4. Places more pressure on the users of the system
    Parallel Features
  146. 1. Allows for an organized and managed approach for implementing system modules of system upgrades
    2. Experience with early implementation can guide and make later implementations go more smoothly
    3. Takes longer and may cost more than the direct cutover approach
    4. Problems encountered during the early phases can impact the overall implementation schedule
    Phase feature

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