#1 HIST Ch 28

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ironmonstar
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#1 HIST Ch 28
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2013-05-08 23:22:45
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Th Cold War
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  1. Baruch Plan
     Plan In 1946, Bernard Baruch presented an American plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons. The plan called for UN control of nuclear weapons in three stages before the United States gave up its stockpile. Soviet insistence on immediate nuclear disarmament without inspection doomed the Baruch Plan and led to a nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union. p. 668
  2. Iron Curtain
    Winston Churchill coined the phrase “ Iron Curtain” to refer to the boundary in Europe that divided Soviet dominated Eastern and Central Europe from Western Europe. p. 666
  3. Truman Doctrine
    Doctrine In 1947, President Truman asked Congress for money "400 Million" to aid the Greek and Turkish governments that were then threatened by communist rebels. Truman asserted that the United States was committed to support free people everywhere against Communist attack or rebellion. p. 669 

    marked an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union.
  4. Containment
    First proposed by George Kennan in 1947, containment became the basic strategy of the United States throughout the Cold War. Kennan argued that firm American resistance would eventually compel Moscow to adopt more peaceful policies. p. 669

    • Three Phases
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3 NATO
  5. Long Telegram
    Crucial telegram in 1946, he warned that the Kremlin believed “ that there can be no compromise with rival power” and advocated a policy of contain-ment, arguing that only strong and sustained resistance could halt the outward fl ow of Russian power. 669
  6. Marshall Plan
    In 1947, A massive aid program to rebuild the war- torn economies of Western Europe. The plan was motivated by both humanitar-ian concerns and fear of communism. p. 670
  7. NATO
    In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. p. 670


    Third Phase of Containment

    • Th ere were two main features of NATO. First, the United States committed itself to the defense of Europe in the key clause, which stated that “ an armed attack against one or more shall be considered an attack against them all.” In eff ect, the United States was extending its atomic shield over Europe. Th e second feature was designed to reassure worried Europeans that the United States would honor this commitment.
  8. Berlin Airlift
    In 1948, in response to a Soviet land blockade of Berlin, the United States carried out a massive effort to supply the 2 million Berlin citi-zens by air. The airlift forced the Soviets to end the blockade in 1949. p. 671
  9. National Security Act
    Congress passed the National Security Act in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after World War II. It established the Department of Defense and created the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA) and National Security Council. p. 671
  10. NSC-68
    National Security Council planning paper No. 68 redefined America’s national defense policy. Adopted in 1950, it committed the United States to a massive military buildup to meet the challenge posed by the Soviet Union. p. 672
  11. Inchon
    General MacArthur changed the whole complexion of the war by carrying out a brilliant amphibious assault at Inchon, on the waist of Korea, cutting off and destroying most of the North Korean army in the South. 674
  12. George Kennan
    General George C. Marshall, the wartime army chief of staff , became secretary of state he relied on two men to implement his policies

    Kennan had become a Soviet expert, mastering Russian history and culture as well as speaking the language fl uently. He served in Moscow after U. S. recognition in 1933 and again during World War II, developing there a profound distrust for the Soviet regime that he warned the US in the LONG TELEGRAM American political advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian. He was instrumental in developing the policy of containment concerning the Soviet Union that dominated the immediate post
  13. Dean Acheson
    General George C. Marshall, the wartime army chief of staff , became secretary of state he relied on two men to implement his policies

    Dean Acheson— who succeeded Marshall as secretary of state in early 1949— believed it was imperative that the United States develop the hydrogen bomb before the Soviet Union. 671

    A favorite target was patrician Secretary of State Dean Acheson, whom McCarthy ridiculed as the “ Red Dean,”
  14. Strom Thurmond
    Southerners bolted from the Democratic party in protest over a progressive civil rights platform. The Dixiecrats, as they became known, nominated Strom Thurmond, the governor of South Carolina, on a States’ Rights party ticket. The defection of the Dixiecrats in the South
  15. Thomas Dewey
    Harry Truman had his hands full resisting efforts to force him off the Democratic ticket, and he faced a difficult reelection effort against a strong Republican candidate, Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York. 

    Thomas E. Dewey of New York, the GOP candidate, was so sure of winning that he waged a cautious and bland campaign designed to give him a free hand once he was in the White House.
  16. HUAC
    held hearings indicating that Communist agents had fl ourished in the Agriculture and Treasury Departments in the 1930s. 676
  17. Hollywood Ten
  18. Smith Act
  19. Mao Tse Tung
    Communists leader in North China
  20. Alger Hiss
    The most famous disclosure in the "Loyalty Review Board Cases" came in August 1948, when Whittaker Chambers, a repentant Communist, accused Alger Hiss of having been a Soviet spy in the 1930s. When Hiss, who had been a prominent State Department official, denied the charges, Chambers led investigators to a hollowed- out pumpkin on his Maryland farm. Inside the pumpkin were microfilms of confidential government documents. Chambers claimed that Hiss had passed the State Department materials to him in the late 1930s. Although the statute of limitations prevented a charge of treason against Hiss, he was convicted of perjury in January 1950 and sentenced to a five- year prison term. pg 676
  21. Whittaker Chambers
    The most famous disclosure in the "Loyalty Review Board Cases" came in August 1948, when Whittaker Chambers, a repentant Communist, accused Alger Hiss of having been a Soviet spy in the 1930s. When Hiss, who had been a prominent State Department official, denied the charges, Chambers led investigators to a hollowed- out pumpkin on his Maryland farm. Inside the pumpkin were microfilms of confidential government documents. Chambers claimed that Hiss had passed the State Department materials to him in the late 1930s. Although the statute of limitations prevented a charge of treason against Hiss, he was convicted of perjury in January 1950 and sentenced to a five- year prison term. Pg 676
  22. Julius and Ethel Rosenburg
    government charged American Communists Ethel and Julius Rosenberg with conspiracy to transmit atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. In 1951, a jury found the Rosenbergs guilty of espionage, and Judge Irving Kaufman sentenced them to die for what he termed their “ loath-some offense.” Despite their insistent claims of innocence and worldwide appeals on their behalf, the Rosenbergs were electrocuted on June 19, 1953. Pg 677
  23. Joseph McCarthy
    • A sensationalist campaign by Senator Joseph McCarthy against supposed communists in government that began in 1950 and ended when the Senate censured him in 1954. p. 677
    • Feb, 12 1950 Senator of Wisconsin  delivered a routine Lincoln’s Birthday speech in Wheeling, West Virginia. McCarthy’s Wheeling speech triggered a four- and- a- half- year crusade to hunt down alleged Communists in government.

    • He was untruthful and failed to unearth a single confirmed Communist in government, but he kept the Truman administration in turmoil.
  24. Amy-McCarthy Hearings
    Th e Wisconsin senator fi nally overreached himself. In early 1954, he uncovered an army dentist suspected of disloyalty and proceeded to attack the upper echelons of the U. S. Army, tell-ing one much decorated general that he was “ not fi t to wear the uniform.” The controversy culminated in the televised Army– McCarthy hearings. For six weeks, the senator revealed his crude, bullying behavior to the American people. Viewers were repelled by his frequent outbursts that began with the insistent cry, “ Point of order, Mr. Chairman, point of order,” and by his attempt to slur the reputation of a young lawyer associated with army counsel Joseph Welch. Th is last maneuver led Welch to condemn McCarthy for his “ reckless cruelty” and ask rhetorically, as millions watched on television, “ Have you no sense of decency, sir?”
  25. John Foster Dulles
    Eisenhower chose John Foster Dulles as his secretary of state. Th e myth soon developed that Ike had given Dulles free rein to conduct American diplomacy. 680
  26. Durn Bien Phu
    Vietminh had surrounded nearly ten thousand French troops at Dien Bien Phu deep in the interior of northern Indochina; in desperation, France turned to the United States for help.

    Th e president used these objections to reject intervention in Indochina in 1954.

    Dien Bien Phu fell to the Vietminh in May 1954. At an interna-tional conference held in Geneva a few weeks later, Indochina was divided at the 17th parallel. Ho gained control of North Vietnam, while the French continued to rule in the South,
  27. Ho Chi Minh
    United States had been giving France military and eco-nomic aid in a war in Indochina against Communist guerrillas led by Ho Chi Minh. 680
  28. Suez Crisis
    Gamal Abdel Nasser, an Egyptian col-onel who seized power in Cairo and nationalized the Suez Canal Company, another vestige of Britain’s declining empire.

    October 1956 the three countries attacked Egypt near the Suez Canal, hoping the military pressure would result in Nasser’s downfall.

    Eisenhower refused to back them.

    He told the British— the ring-leaders of the Suez operation, in Eisenhower’s accurate assessment— that they must shut down the nascent war at once. When they hesitated, he threatened to use America’s trump cards against the British: oil and the dol-lar. The president prepared to block oil shipments from the Americas to Britain, and to let the British currency, the pound, decline against the dollar. A loss of American oil would squeeze British industry and transport; a collapse of the pound would ravage British finance. The British had no choice but to acquiesce in Eisenhower’s ultimatum. The Suez war halted almost as soon as it began,
  29. Sputnik
    Sputnik , the fi rst artifi cial satellite to orbit the Earth, intensifi ed the Cold War. 684
  30. Wehrner Von Braun
    President Eisenhower then approved plans to let an army team, led by German scientist Wernher Von Braun, attempt to put a satellite into orbit using the reli-able intermediate range 695
  31. NASA
    Another important congressional action came with the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Admin-istration ( NASA) in 1958. Concerned by the interservice rivalry that ham-pered the missile program, its spon-sors insisted on a new civilian agency to oversee the nation’s space program. While dependent on the military for the rocket boosters, NASA was able to develop its own agenda for space exploration and started a program that would eventually place astronauts in orbit around the Earth and land them on the moon by the end of the next decade. 695
  32. U-2 Incident
    On May 1, two weeks before the leaders were to convene in Paris, the Soviets shot down an American U- 2 plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers. Th e United States had been fl ying over Russia since 1956 in the high- altitude spy planes, gaining vital information about the Soviet missile program that showed there was little basis for the public’s fear that the Russians had opened up a dangerous missile gap. Aft er initially denying any knowledge, Eisenhower took full responsibility for Powers’s overfl ight, and Khrushchev responded with a scathing personal denunciation and a refusal to meet with the American president. 685

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