psych chapter 13
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the study of how people influence others behavior, beliefs, and attitudes
Social comparison theory
theory that we seek to evaluate out abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others
Difference between upward and downward social comparison
- upward- we compare ourselves with people who seem superior to us in some way.
- ex. when a new member of the mends basketball team compares himself with the teams top two superstars
- downward- we compare ourselves with others who seem inferior to us in some wars.
- ex. when a basketball player compares himself with his clumsy friends who keep bouncing basketballs off of their feet.
outbreak of irrational behavior that is spread by social contagion.
episodes of mass hysteria lead to collective delusions, in which many people simultaneously com to be convinced of bizarre things that are false, such as UFO's
enhancement of performance brought about by the presence of others
assigning causes to behavior
fundamental attribution error
tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences(traits, attitude) on other people's behavior.
we attribute too much of people/s behavior to who they are
tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure
the tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities.
emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking
tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members
group of individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause
approach to convincing people to change their minds about something by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking them
adherence to instruction from those of higher authority
error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do
diffusion of responsibility
reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others
phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups
helping others for unselfish reasons
learning about psychological research can change real-world behavior for the better
behavior intended to harm others, either verbally or physically
belief that includes an emotional component
personality trait that assesses the extent to which peoples behavior reflects their true feelings and attitudes.
unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs
theory that we acquire out attitudes by observing our behaviors
impression management theory
theory that we dont really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behaviors appear consistent with out attitudes
persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one
persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request were hoping to have granted
persuasive technique in which the seller of a product starts by quoting a low sales price, and then mentions all of the "add-on" costs once the customer has agreed to purchase the product
drawing negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence
a belief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group
ultimate attribution error
assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositions
evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different
tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group
tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar
negative behavior toward members of out-group
claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes
claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason
unfounded negative belief of which we're aware regarding the characteristics of an out-group
- unfounded negative belief of which were unaware regarding the
- characteristics of an out-group
educational approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project
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