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What are the 4 features of the Scientific Method?
What is an independent variable?
The independent variable is indepent of the subject and is manipulated by the researcher.
What is a Dependent Variable?
The dependent variable depends on the subject's response.
What is an Extraneous Variable?
An extraneous variable is an unwanted, uncontrolled factor that influences the experiment and invalidates the results.
What is a Subject Variable?
The Subject Variable is the participant's age, gender, etc. but can't be manipulated.
What is the Quasi-Independent Variable?
The quasi-independent variable exists outside of the participant and cannot be manipulated, such as laws, weather, geography, etc.
Define and give an example of Random Sampling.
- A random sample is when every member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate in a study.
- An example is using registration records to obtain a sample of students.
Define and give an example of Convenience Sampling.
- Convenience Sampling is when participants are selected for their accessibility or ease of testing.
- An example is testing the psych 312 class.
List and define the scales of measurement.
- Nominal - categories
- Ordinal - ordered but not equal intervals
- Interval - ordered, equal intervals, no true zero
- Ratio - ordered, equal intervals, true zero
What does "n" represent?
What does "N" represent?
- n = number of participants per group
- N = total sample size
What are the 2 types of deception?
- Active - giving misleading information
- Passive - withholding information
Give one way to protrect:
- Privacy - conduct observation in public
- Anonymity - no name collection, separate records
- Confidentiality - data identified by code, not name; publish only summary data
What are the 3 main purposes of debriefing?
What are the non-systematic sources of research ideas?
- Observation of people
- Observation of surroundings
What are the systematic sources of research ideas?
- Past research
- classroom lectures
What are the 4 characteristics of a research hypothesis
- Synthetic Statement: either true or false
- Falsifiable: can be shown to be wrong
- General Implication Form: if/then statement
- Directional or Non-Directional: "more/less" or "different from"
What are the 4 types of IVs?
What are 4 ways of measuring a DV?
What is a "nuisance variable"?
A nuisance variable is an unwanted factor that increases the variability of scores within a sample. A nuisance variable makes it harder to see the effect.
What is a "confounding" variable?
- A confounding variable is an unintended influence on the DV and biases the results.
- A confounding variable renders the findings meaningless.
What are 4 ways of dealing with extraneous variables?
What 2 types of effects does counterbalancing counteract?
Counterbalancing counteracts the Carryover Effect and the Order Effect.
What are the 2 sources of error in a study?
Which is more important?
- Random error and bias.
- Bias is more important because it is a confound and invalidates the results.
What are the 2 forms of experimenter bias?
Experimenter expectancy and experimenter characteristics.
What are the 3 forms of participant bias?
- Demand effect
- Good participant effect
- Response Bias
What is the defining characteristic of a descriptive study?
Descriptive studies do not have a manipulated variable.
Name and define the 2 types of surveys.
- Descriptive: seeks to determine what % of the population has a particular belief, behavior or characteristic.
- Analytical: seeks to determine the relevant variables and how they are related
Name and describe the 2 biases that can compromise representativeness.
- Self-selection bias: particular people more likely to respond
- Sampling bias: not representative of the population
Not being representative compromises generalizability.
What is the difference between validity and reliability?
- Validity: a construct measures what it is supposed to measure.
- Reliability: provides consistent responses for a particular individual.
What is the difference between a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study?
- Cross-sectional: compares multiple sub-groups at a particular point in time.
- Longitudinal: studys one group over an extended period of time.
At what 2 stages can qualitative and quantitative research differ?
collection and analysis
Data collected _____ typically cannot be analyzed _____,
whereas data collected _____ typically can be analyzed _____.
- quantitatively; qualitatively
- qualitatively; quantitatively
What are the 3 types of explanations for a correlation?
- A causes B
- B causes A
- C causes A & B