Card Set Information
Thurston County EMT
Multicultural Awareness, Geriatrics, Patients with Special Challenges
What is culture?
our way of life
the way we do things
the way we hear what others are saying
the way we see what is around us
African Americans report higher rates of these two diseases.
Death from diabetes occurs at ___ times the average rate in African Americans
Infant mortality is 2 times the average rate in these two ethnic groups
American Indian/Alaskan Natives
These 3 ethnic groups report an increased risk of cervical cancer at 2 times the average rate.
The risk of tuberculosis is ____ times the average rate in Asians
The risk of tuberculosis is 7 times the average rate in this ethnic group
African Americans and Hispanics have an increased risk of tuberculosis at ___ times the average rate
What is the definition of cultural competence?
The ability to be effecting in providing care in diverse settings and to diverse populations
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the cardiovascular system of geriatric patients?
cardiac hypertrophy (larger heart)
orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension)
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the respiratory system of geriatric patients?
decrease in size and strength of muscle tissue used for respiration and smooth muscle fibers
diminished resistance to infection
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the nervous system of geriatric patients?
decrease in brain mass/weight
altered ability to perceive hunger and thirst
diminished sensory perception
diminished vision - cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, retinal detachment
neuropathy (loss of sensation in nerves)
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the gastrointestinal system of geriatric patients?
malnutrition due to reduction in taste/smell, deterioration in structures of mouth, drop in salivary flow, decrease in smooth muscle contraction
liver decreases in size, weight and funtion
peristalsis (digestion) is slowed
constipation is common
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the endocrine system of geriatric patients?
increase in hormones contributing to fluid imbalance and hypertension
drop in responsiveness to insulin
elevation in blood sugar lvls
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the musculoskeletal system of geriatric patients?
osteoporosis (brittle bones)
decreased joint flexibility and ROM
pain with movement
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the renal system of geriatric patients?
kidneys become smaller = less filtration
electrolyte distribution disrupted
What are the possible negative things that could happen in the integumentary (skin) system of geriatric patients?
skin becomes thinner
tendency for sores and tearing injuries
dulled sense of touch
diminished protective barrier
What are beta blockers
reduce how hard and how fast the heart pumps
What are blood thinnners?
they reduce the body's ability to form clots
What are diuretics?
reduce the amount of fluid in the body (mainly for ppl with CHF)
What are the changes in vitals in elderly patients?
increased chance of postural hypotension
decreased skin temp
increased chance of irregular pulse
pulse rate may not increase with shock
What are all the possible causes for dyspnea in elderly patients?
What does FAST stand for?
What is TIA?
transient ischemic attack
temporary stroke (symptoms do not stay)
What is the most common fracture in the elderly?
What is the difference between a hip and a pelvic fracture?
: most commonly occur in the femoral neck
: fracture of the pelvic bone
What is the pain management protocol?
attempt all non pharmacological measures first
reassess vitals and physical signs of pain
if pt fits the criteria and rates the pain at least 7/10 and states that they would like and IV injection
List the symptoms and location for an upper GI bleed
vomiting bright red blood or "coffee grounds"
could be in the esophagus, stomach, or duedenim
List the symptoms for a lower GI bleed
melana = dark tarry stools
Describe a vulnerable adult
greater than 60 y/o and unable to care for themselves
an adult living in a nursing home, boarding home or adult family home
adult with developmental disability
adult with legal guardian
adult receiving personal care services in own or family's home
List the the 8 ways make a home safer for the elderly
eliminate throw rugs
install arm rests on chairs
replace low back chairs with high back chairs
eliminate rolling chairs
maintain temp of 72 degrees in winter
install slip resistant mats in bathrooms
install handrails on stairways
What are the possible vision impairments?
What are the possible speech imparments
dysarthria (slurred speech)
voice production disorders
What is dysphagia?
What is dysphasia
impaired speech (word salad)
What is aphagia
unable to swallow
what is aphasia
unable to speak
What is BiPAP and CPAP
assists with every ventilation with uninterrupted pressure
keeps bronchioles open during exhalation to improve oxygenation
pt who have COPD and sleep apnea use these
What are possible problems with dialysis?
syncope because too much fluid loss causing hypotension
What are the obvious signs of death?
body positioning incompatible with life
What does POLST stand for?
physicians orders on life saving treatment
What are the three situation in which documentation allows the EMT to withhold treatment?
POLST form with part A checked (DNAR)
patient is in licensed nursing home with a DNR order signed by a physician
documentation that the patient is enrolled in hospice
In an MCI, what the qualifications for a black tag?
apneic pts who do not start breathing with airway positioning
Unless a supervising physician orders otherwise, these patients should have resuscitative efforts begun and transported to nearest hospital
possible drug OD