psych chapter 14

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  1. personality
    peoples typical wars of thinking, feeling, and behaving
  2. trait
    relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavior across many situations
  3. nomothetic approach
    approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals
  4. idiographic approach
    approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person
  5. molecular genetic study
    investigation that allows researchers to pinpoint genes associated with specific personality traits
  6. psychic determinism
    the assumption that all psychological events have a cause
  7. ID
    reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression...

  8. pleasure principle
    tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification.. the word "no" is not in the id's vocabulary
  9. ego
    • psyche's executive and principal decision maker
    • ...
    • reality principle
  10. reality principle
    tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet
  11. superego
    our sense of morality
  12. differentiate between id, ego, and superego
    id- pleasure principle, instant gratification

    ego- reality principle, postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet

    superego- morality
  13. defense mechanisms
    unconscious maneuvers intended to minimise anxiety
  14. repression
    • motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses
    • ....
    • we forget because we want to forget, remembering will bring back all the pain from before
    • ....
    • a person who witnesses a traumatic combat scene finds himself unable to remember it.
  15. denial
    • motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences
    • ....
    • a mother who loses a child in a car accident insists her child is alive
  16. regression
    • the act of returning psychologically to a younger, and typically simpler and safer, age
    • ....
    • a college student starts sucking his thumb during a difficult exam
  17. reaction-formation
    • transformation of an anxiety-provoking emotion into its opposite
    • ......
    • a married women who's sexually attracted to a coworker experiences hatred and revulsion toward him
  18. projection
    • unconscious attribution of our negative qualities onto others
    • ......
    • a married man with powerful unconscious sexual impulses toward females complains that other women are always after him
  19. displacement
    • directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a more acceptable one
    • ....
    • ....
    • a golfer angrily throws his club into the woods after he misses an easy putt
  20. rationalization
    • providing reasonable-sounding explanations for unreasonable behaviors or failures.
    • ...
    • a political candidate who loses an election convinces herself that she didn't really want the position after all.
    • ...
  21. Intellectualization
    • avoiding the emotions associated with anxiety-provoking experiences by focusing on abstract and impersonal thoughts
    • ....
    • a women whose husband cheats on her reassures herself that "according to evolutionary psychologists, men are naturally sexually promiscuous, so theres nothing to worry about"
  22. identification with the aggressor
    • adopting the psychological characteristics of people we find threatening
    • ....
    • a college basketball player who initially fears his tyrannical coach comes to admire him and adopts his dictatorial qualities
  23. Sublimation
    • transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired and socially valued goal
    • ....
    • a boy who enjoys beating up on other children grows up to become a successful professional boxer
  24. oral stage
    • psychosexual stage that focuses on the mouth....
    • birth to 12-18 months 
    • ...
    • sucking and drinking
  25. anal stage
    • psychosexual stage that focuses on toilet training
    • .....
    • 18 months to 3 years
    • .... alleviating tension by expelling feces
  26. phallic stage
    • stage that focuses on the genitals....
    • 3 to 6 years old
  27. latency stage
    • stage in which sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious
    • ....
    • 6 to 12 years
    • .....
    • dormant sexual stage
  28. genital stage
    • stage in which sexual impulses awaken and typically begin to mature into romantic attraction toward others
    • .....
    • 12 years and beyond
    • ....
    • renewed sexual impulses, emergence of mature romantic relationships
  29. oedipus complex
    conflict during phallic stage in which boys supposedly love their mothers romantically and want to eliminate their fathers as reivals
  30. electra complex
    conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
  31. inferiority complex
    feelings of low self-esteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings
  32. collective unconscious
    according to Jung, our shared storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to us across generations
  33. archetype
    cross-culturally universal symbols
  34. Social Learning Theorists
    theorists who emphasize thinking as a cause of personality
  35. reciprocal determinism
    tendency for people to mutually influence each others behavior
  36. locus of control
    extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of their control
  37. self actualization
    drive to develop out innate potential to the fullest possible extent
  38. conditions of worth
    according to Rogers, expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior
  39. incongruence
    inconsistency between our personalities and innate dispositions
  40. peak experience
    transcendent moment of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world
  41. factor analysis
    statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures
  42. big five
    five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures
  43. lexical approach
    approach proposing that the most crucial features of personality are embedded in our language
  44. structured personality test
    paper and pencil test consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed wars
  45. incremental validity
    extent to which a test contributes information beyond other, more easily collected, measure
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psych chapter 14
2013-05-07 22:57:17
psych final

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