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The anterior pituitary comes as an outcropping from the roof of the __
Because the anterior pituitary has no axons going down to it, what?
the neurotransmitter hormones are using portal vessel system to carry hormones that cause release of hormones. (capillary--> venule --> vein --> venules --> capillary)
what are kinases?
enzymes that phosphorylate things
What can steroids do?
turn on gene expression or regulate it
Organs of the urinary system?
- two kidneys
- two ureters
The glomerulus is a __.
There are __ in the kidneys.
Afferent arterioles do what? Efferent?
- branch off the renal artery
- 1 million arteries
- bring blood to
- bring blood away from
True or False:
Water undergoes active and passive movement.
- Water is never active (no living cell can directly control movement of water across its membrane; it is moving passively because NaCl is being actively pumped)
What is angiotensin II?
the most potent vasoconstrictor. In addition, it goes to adrenal cortex and stimulates the release of aldosterone and calls on its “boys,” vasopressin, which augments the vasoconstrictive effect, increasing further the blood pressure.
Once you see blood, what line of defense is it?
In our tears, __ do what?
lysozymes break down bacterial cell walls
Salivary amylase, while functioning in carb digestion, is mostly needed for what?
- for defense against bacteria that will cause dental caries
- - first line of defense
What is the ratio of RBC to WBC?
five hundred to one
Which ones are the first to arrive at a damaged site? They are attracted by?
- pathogens or damaged tissue
Neutrophils are facilitated by __ that respond by releasing __
What is pus?
dead neutrophil along with some pathogens
Eosinophils protect against?
parasitic worm infections
Antibodies are ?
What do pain relievers block?
What else do mast cells release?
heparin to prevent coagulation
what is hematopoiesis?
the formation adn development of blood cells going on it cancellous (spongy) bone
__% of __ cells in the __ are making WBCs
What are the second most prevalent WBC?
True or False:
Helper T cell will allow the plasma cell to become more effective.
What is the epitote?
specific part fo the pathogen that is binding to the antigen binding site
Antibodies do one of three thigns?
- -Bind to antibody and keep it from being pathogenic
- -Because antibodies clump on to it, (opsonization occurs), they clump and make the antibody more tasty: makes the pathogen tasty; a macrophage will go by and see a clump of antibodies and eat it
- -Block accessibility of pathogen to the target and bring it out of solution
__ and __ are surface receptors.
__ are hte ones the mama is giving to the baby.
Plasma cells have a whole lot of what and are doing what?
- and are making tons of protein for exocytosis
- they are exocytosing IgGs
__ are made by cytotoxic T cells; they do what?
- perforate and allow water to come in