Extra BIO Notes

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Author:
DesLee26
ID:
218347
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Extra BIO Notes
Updated:
2013-05-07 16:17:07
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BIO 220
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FINAL
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  1. The anterior pituitary comes as an outcropping from the roof of the __
    oropharynx
  2. Because the anterior pituitary has no axons going down to it, what?
    the neurotransmitter hormones are using portal vessel system to carry hormones that cause release of hormones. (capillary--> venule --> vein --> venules --> capillary)
  3. what are kinases?
    enzymes that phosphorylate things
  4. What can steroids do?
    turn on gene expression or regulate it
  5. Organs of the urinary system?
    • two kidneys
    • two ureters
    • bladder
    • urethra
  6. The glomerulus is a __. 
    There are __ in the kidneys. 
    Afferent arterioles do what? Efferent?
    • branch off the renal artery
    • 1 million arteries
    • bring blood to
    • bring blood away from
  7. True or False:
    Water undergoes active and passive movement.
    • False
    • Water is never active (no living cell can directly control movement of water across its membrane; it is moving passively because NaCl is being actively pumped)
  8. What is angiotensin II?
    the most potent vasoconstrictor. In addition, it goes to adrenal cortex and stimulates the release of aldosterone and calls on its “boys,” vasopressin, which augments the vasoconstrictive effect, increasing further the blood pressure.
  9. Once you see blood, what line of defense is it?
    second
  10. In our tears, __ do what?
    lysozymes break down bacterial cell walls
  11. Salivary amylase, while functioning in carb digestion, is mostly needed for what?
    • for defense against bacteria that will cause dental caries
    • - first line of defense
  12. What is the ratio of RBC to WBC?
    five hundred to one
  13. Which ones are the first to arrive at a damaged site? They are attracted by?
    • neutrophils
    • pathogens or damaged tissue
  14. Neutrophils are facilitated by __ that respond by releasing __
    • mast cell
    • histamine
  15. What is pus?
    dead neutrophil along with some pathogens
  16. Eosinophils protect against?
    parasitic worm infections
  17. Antibodies are ?
    immunoglobulins
  18. What do pain relievers block?
    prostaglandins
  19. What else do mast cells release?
    heparin to prevent coagulation
  20. what is hematopoiesis?
    the formation adn development of blood cells going on it cancellous (spongy) bone
  21. __% of __ cells in the __ are making WBCs
    • 75
    • stem
    • bone marrow
  22. What are the second most prevalent WBC?
    • lymphocytes 
    • 30-40%
  23. True or False:
    Helper T cell will allow the plasma cell to become more effective.
    True
  24. What is the epitote?
    specific part fo the pathogen that is binding to the antigen binding site
  25. Antibodies do one of three thigns?
    • -Bind to antibody and keep it from being pathogenic
    • -Because antibodies clump on to it, (opsonization occurs), they clump and make the antibody more tasty: makes the pathogen tasty; a macrophage will go by and see a clump of antibodies and eat it
    • -Block accessibility of pathogen to the target and bring it out of solution 
  26. __ and __ are surface receptors. 
    __ are hte ones the mama is giving to the baby.
    • IgD and IgE
    • IgA
  27. Plasma cells have a whole lot of what and are doing what?
    • ER
    • and are making tons of protein for exocytosis 
    • they are exocytosing IgGs
  28. __ are made by cytotoxic T cells; they do what?
    • perforins
    • perforate and allow water to come in

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