Med-Surg Exam 1 (Intro to Med-Surg)

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Med-Surg Exam 1 (Intro to Med-Surg)
2013-05-07 18:38:41
med surg

Intro to med-surg exam; Lessons 1-3
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  1. What are the needs included on Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs pyramid?
    • physiologic
    • safety and security
    • love and belonging
    • self-esteem
    • self-actualization
  2. What is the physiologic response of the whole body to stress that is often referred to as the neuroendocrine response?
    general adaptation syndrome
  3. What are the stages of general adaptation syndrome?
    • stage 1:  alarm reaction
    • stage 2:  resistance
    • stage 3:  exhaustion
  4. What is the term for any behavioral or cognitive activity used to deal with stress?
  5. What is the difference between acute and chronic illness?
    • acute:  rapid onset and short duration
    • chronic:  insidious/gradual onset and long duration
  6. Nontraditional therapies are called ________ if they are used in place of conventional medicine.
  7. Nontraditional therapies used along with conventional therapies are called ________.
  8. What is the body's first line of defense?
    skin and mucous membranes
  9. What is the body's second line of defense?
    phagocytosis and inflammation
  10. What are colorless cells that are able to phagocytose bacteria?
    leukocytes (WBC)
  11. What is a series of cellular changes that signal the body's response to injury or infection?
    the inflammatory process
  12. What are the four classic manifestations of inflammation?
    • rubor (redness)
    • calor (heat)
    • tumor (swelling)
    • dolor (pain)
  13. What is made up of about 25 proteins that work together to assist the action of antibodies in destroying bacteria?
    complement system
  14. What is the role of cortisol in antiinflammation?
    • slows the release of histamine
    • stabilizes lysosomal membranes
    • prevents the influx of WBC
    • It protects the body from excessive or prolonged inflammation
  15. What are the s/s of local inflammation?
    • heat
    • swelling
    • redness
    • pain
  16. What are the s/s of systemic inflammation?
    • fever
    • h/a
    • muscle aches
    • chills
    • seating
    • leukocytosis
  17. What are the stages of wound healing?
    • hemostasis
    • inflammation
    • proliferation
    • remodeling
  18. What is the difference between inflammation and infection?
    • inflammation:  a nonspecific body reaction to tissue injury
    • infection:  a specific process that causes tissue injury
  19. What are the factors in the chain of infection?
    • causative agent
    • reservoir
    • portal of exit
    • mode of transfer
    • portal of entry
    • susceptible host
  20. What is the difference between an antigen and an antibody?
    • antigen:  any substance capable of stimulating a response from the immune stystem
    • antibody:  AKA immunoglobulin; protein that is created in response to a specific antigen
  21. What happens once the body has been exposed to a specific antigen?
    antibodies develop and retain memory for that antigen and if the body is exposed again, the antibodies can react quickly
  22. How is natural passive immunity acquired?
    passed from mother; temporary
  23. How is natural active immunity acquired?
    after natural exposure to antigen; you form your own antibodies
  24. How is artificial passive immunity acquired?
    given immunoglobulins (antibodies); temporary
  25. How is artificial active immunity acquired?
    given a vaccine
  26. What participates in the formation and maturation of immune system cells?
    thymus and bone marrow cells
  27. What type of immunity is the first-line (immediate) defense?
    antibody-mediated immunity
  28. What type of immunity is the delayed response to injury or infection?
    cell-mediated immunity
  29. What are the three types of T-cells?
    • helper
    • suppressor
    • killer
  30. ________ is caused by the body being unable to launch an adequate immune response and being at great risk for infection.
  31. What is the difference between the treatment of congenital immunodeficiency and acquired immunodeficiency?
    • congenital:  treated with replacement therapy of the immune component
    • acquired:  treated by correcting the underlying condiction
  32. What are two types of autoimmune diseases?
    • RA
    • Lupis
  33. How do you treat an autoimmune disease?
    cortocosteroids and NSAIDS