Med-Surg Exam 1 (Intro to Med-Surg)
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What are the needs included on Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs pyramid?
- safety and security
- love and belonging
What is the physiologic response of the whole body to stress that is often referred to as the neuroendocrine response?
general adaptation syndrome
What are the stages of general adaptation syndrome?
- stage 1: alarm reaction
- stage 2: resistance
- stage 3: exhaustion
What is the term for any behavioral or cognitive activity used to deal with stress?
What is the difference between acute and chronic illness?
- acute: rapid onset and short duration
- chronic: insidious/gradual onset and long duration
Nontraditional therapies are called ________ if they are used in place of conventional medicine.
Nontraditional therapies used along with conventional therapies are called ________.
What is the body's first line of defense?
skin and mucous membranes
What is the body's second line of defense?
phagocytosis and inflammation
What are colorless cells that are able to phagocytose bacteria?
What is a series of cellular changes that signal the body's response to injury or infection?
the inflammatory process
What are the four classic manifestations of inflammation?
- rubor (redness)
- calor (heat)
- tumor (swelling)
- dolor (pain)
What is made up of about 25 proteins that work together to assist the action of antibodies in destroying bacteria?
What is the role of cortisol in antiinflammation?
- slows the release of histamine
- stabilizes lysosomal membranes
- prevents the influx of WBC
- It protects the body from excessive or prolonged inflammation
What are the s/s of local inflammation?
What are the s/s of systemic inflammation?
- muscle aches
What are the stages of wound healing?
What is the difference between inflammation and infection?
- inflammation: a nonspecific body reaction to tissue injury
- infection: a specific process that causes tissue injury
What are the factors in the chain of infection?
- causative agent
- portal of exit
- mode of transfer
- portal of entry
- susceptible host
What is the difference between an antigen and an antibody?
- antigen: any substance capable of stimulating a response from the immune stystem
- antibody: AKA immunoglobulin; protein that is created in response to a specific antigen
What happens once the body has been exposed to a specific antigen?
antibodies develop and retain memory for that antigen and if the body is exposed again, the antibodies can react quickly
How is natural passive immunity acquired?
passed from mother; temporary
How is natural active immunity acquired?
after natural exposure to antigen; you form your own antibodies
How is artificial passive immunity acquired?
given immunoglobulins (antibodies); temporary
How is artificial active immunity acquired?
given a vaccine
What participates in the formation and maturation of immune system cells?
thymus and bone marrow cells
What type of immunity is the first-line (immediate) defense?
What type of immunity is the delayed response to injury or infection?
What are the three types of T-cells?
________ is caused by the body being unable to launch an adequate immune response and being at great risk for infection.
What is the difference between the treatment of congenital immunodeficiency and acquired immunodeficiency?
- congenital: treated with replacement therapy of the immune component
- acquired: treated by correcting the underlying condiction
What are two types of autoimmune diseases?
How do you treat an autoimmune disease?
cortocosteroids and NSAIDS
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