A&P Seeley 2.7
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What are proteins?
Polypeptides composed of hundreds of amino acids.
All proteins contain…
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen bound together by covalent bonds.
How do proteins help the body?
- Regulate bodily processes
- Transportation system
- Provide protection
- Help muscles contact
- Provide structure and evergy
The basic building blocks for proteins are…
20 amino acid molecules
The covalent bonds formed between amino acid molecules during protein synthesis.
2 amino acids bound together by a peptide bond
3 amino acids bound together by peptide bonds
Many amino acids bound together by peptide bonds
The primary structure of a protein is determined by…
The sequence of the amino acids bound by peptide bonds.
How is the function of a protein determined?
The characteristics of the amino acids determine the 3D shape which determines the function
The secondary structure results from…
The folding or bending of the polypeptide chain caused by the hydrogen bonds between amino acids
What are the 2 common shapes of a polypeptide chain?
- Helices (coils)
- Pleated (folded) sheets
When the hydrogen bonds that maintain the shape of a protein are broken.
What can cause denaturation?
Abnormally high temperature or change in the pH of body fluids.
Tertiary structure results from…
The folding of the helices or pleated sheets
The folded sequence of 100-200 amino acids within a protein.
The spatial relationships between protein subunits.
A protein catalyst that increases the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds without the enzyme being permanently changed.
A reaction occurs when the reactants (key) bind to the active site (lock) on the enzyme.
Induced fit model
The enzyme is able to slightly change shape and better fit the reactants.
An additional, nonprotein substance required for some enzymes to be functional.
Cofactors that are organic molecules
What do enzymes control?
The rate at which most chemical reactions proceed in living systems.
Large molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
Basic building blocks in DNA and RNA
A sequence of DNA bases that directs the synthesis of proteins or RNA molecules.
- Adenosine triphosphate
- An especially important organic molecule found in al living organisms.
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