A&P Seeley 2.6

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A&P Seeley 2.6
2014-03-11 22:01:47
Sunny03 Anatomy Physiology Seeley Chemical Basis
A&P Seeley
Anatomy & Physiology text, Seeley, Ch 2 The Chemical Basis of Life, part 6/7
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  1. Lipids
    A major group of organic molecules common to living systems.
  2. What are lipids composed of?
    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and some contain other elements such as phosphorus and nitrogen.
  3. Why can lipids be dissolved in nonpolar organic solvents, such as alcohol, but no in water?
    They have a lower oxygen to carbon ratio and are less polar
  4. What important functions do lipids provide?
    Protection and insulation, help regulate many physiologic processes, form plasma membranes, store energy, and can be broken down and used as an energy source.
  5. What kinds of molecules are classified as lipids?
    Fats, phospholipids, steroids, and prostaglandins
  6. Fats are a major type of ____.
  7. Like carbohydrates fats are ingested and broken down by ____
    Hydrolysis reaction in cells to release energy
  8. What role do lipids play in the body?
    Protection, insulation, regulation, vitamins, structure, & energy
  9. How do lipids provide protection?
    Fat surrounds and pads organs
  10. How do lipids provide insulation?
    • Fat under the skin prevents heat loss.
    • Myelin surrounds nerve cells and electrically insulates the cells from one another.
  11. How do lipids provide regulation?
    • Steroid hormones regulate many physiologic processes.
    • Prostaglandins help regulate tissue inflammation and repair.
  12. How do lipids provide vitamins?
    • Fat-soluble vitamins are stored such as A, D, E, and K.
    • How do lipids provide structure?
    • Phospholipids and cholesterol are important components of the membranes of cells.
  13. How do lipids provide energy?
    Lipids can be stored and broken down later for energy.
  14. Which fat makes up 95% of fats in the human body?
  15. Triglycerides are sometimes called _____.
  16. What do triglycerides consist of?
    1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
  17. How are glycerides described?
    • According to the number and kinds of fatty acids that combine with glycerol through dehydration reaction.
    • Monoglycerides – 1
    • Diglycerides – 2
    • Triglycerides – 3
  18. Saturated fatty acids
    • Contains only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms.
    • Beef, pork, whole milk, cheese, butter, eggs, coconut oil, and palm oil
  19. Unsaturated fatty acids
    Has one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms.
  20. Monounsaturated fats
    • Have one double covalent bond between carbon atoms.
    • Olive and peanut oils
  21. Polyunsaturated fats
    • Have two or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms.
    • Safflower, sunflower, corn, and fish oils
  22. Which fats are best and why?
    Unsaturated fats because they don’t contribute to cardiovascular disease.
  23. Phospholipids
    • Similar to triglycerides except that one fatty acid is replace by a phosphate molecule and nitrogen.
    • Important structural components of the membranes of cells.
  24. Hydrophilic
    Attracted to water
  25. Hydrophobic
    Repelled by water
  26. Eicosanoids
    A group of important chemicals derived from fatty acids.
  27. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are what type of group?
  28. Where are eicosanoids made?
    In most cells
  29. Why are eicosanoids important?
    They are important regulatory molecules and help repair tissue, regulate hormones, blood clotting, reproductive function, and more.
  30. What are some important steroid molecules?
    Cholesterol, bile salts, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone