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How can John Wesley be considered the grandfather of the modern
Because he focused on experiential Christianity and the second work of grace. John Wesley birthed Methodist and then later the Holiness movement.
What was the significance of Wesley’s Aldersgate experience?
Born-again, heart-felt religion.
What is the genesis of the term “Methodist” as it is applied to Wesley and his followers?
It was a derogatory term given to the “holy club” at Oxford because of their methodical approach to holiness but they embraced the term.
How does John Wesley and George Whitefield
differ on election, predestination, and free will?
Whitfield was Calvanist and Wesley was an Armenian.
Who was Wesley’s primary lieutenant in the
Francis Asbury, He evangelized and had a lot to do with the expansion of Methodism in the United States. He would rise horseback teaching and preaching in the frontier anytime anyone would give him an ear.
Summarize Wesley’s doctrine:
- You are free from willful sin but you are not
- exempt from sinful nature.
“The world is my parish”
He believed works would follow as evidence and separation of justification and sanctification (the house, front porch is justification and sanctification as you walk through the door).
- Wesley helped to organise and form societies of Christians throughout Great Britain, North America and Ireland as small groups that developed intensive, personal accountability, discipleship and religious instruction
- among members. His great contribution was to appoint itinerant, unordained preachers who travelled widely to evangelise and care for people in the societies.
Who was Jonathan Edwards and why is he important?
“Sinners in the hand of an Angry God” He is the most original/best American born Theologian.
Was a Christian preacher and theologian. Edwards "is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian and one of America's greatest intellectuals.
Emphasized personal relationship and unity. Played critical role in first great awakening and oversaw some of the first revivals.
What role did George Whitefield play in the
He became perhaps the best-known preacher in Britain and America in the 18th century, and because he traveled through all of the American colonies and drew great crowds and media coverage, he was one of the most widely recognized public figures in colonial America.
The Anglican Church did not assign him a pulpit, so he began preaching in parks and fields in England on his own, reaching out to people who normally did not attend church. Like Jonathan Edwards, he developed a style of preaching that elicited emotional responses from his audiences. But Whitefield had charisma, and his voice (which according to many accounts, could be heard over five miles), his small stature, and even his cross-eyed appearance (which some people took as a mark of divine favor) all served to help make him one of the first celebrities in the American colonies.
How were the church and state intertwined in Puritan New England?
You had to be a baptized member, adult confession, so you could hold land, or any elected office.. You didn’t have any option of going to any other church similar to magisterial.
Who was Barton W Stone?
His writings indicate a very oneness language.
They baptized in Jesus Name.
He was an important preacher during the Second Great Awakening of the early 19th century. He was first ordained a Presbyterian minister, then was expelled from the church after the Cane Ridge, Kentucky revival for his stated beliefs in faith as the sole prerequisite for salvation.He became allied with Alexander Campbell, and formed the Restoration Movement. His followers were first called "New Lights" and "Stoneites". Later to be known as the Christian Church of Christ. He and Campbell tried to bring denominations together that relied solely on the Scriptures.
Who was Charles Finney?
Was a leader in the Second Great Awakening. He has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism. Finney was best known as an innovative revivalist, the primary component of revivalism and an opponent of Old School Presbyterian theology, an advocate of Christian perfectionism, a pioneer in social reforms in favor of women and African-Americans, a religious writer, and president at Oberlin College.
How did the democratic ideals of the young American republic spill over into the church?
- The democratic views of North America influenced to have democratic for of church organization. Preachers led churches and
- members are allowed input, more autonomous and less hierarchical. Because the land in America was so vast if there was disagreement they could move away. More lay preachers, it trained faster.
Who were prominent Roman Catholic missionaries and where did they minister?
Francis Exabier, India, China,Japan,
Why is Portuguese the principal language of Brazil?
Spain and Portugal aren’t getting along. Everything West belongs to Papal divide, essentially giving Africa to the Portugese, so chose a longitudal line didn’t realize Brazil so Portugese
What is theosis or deification?
- 2 Peter 1:4, partakers of the divine nature. How we become God-like
- Through these he has given us his very great and precious promises, so that through them you may participate in the divine nature, having escaped the corruption in the world caused by evil desires.
What is apophatic theology or the theology of negation and what is the primary impetus behind its development?
- God is so holy that nothing can do justice, it
- would be an unholy act to try to understand. We find what God isn’t instead of what God is.
Eastern orthodoxy- they embrace the mystery
If justification is the principal concern of the Western church, what is the principal concern of the Eastern church?
- Justification of the Western church
- Sanctification of the Eastern church
Who was the father of modern liberal theology and what is the primary motivation behind liberal theology?
Dogmatic theology always looses out to science. So he tries to make it compatible with science and reason. Find a way in which Christianity is aligned with enlightment. Can’t say faith is fact. For Schalamker, a feeling of trusting in God.
Who was B.B warfield and why were he and his colleagues important?
- Father of Fundamentalism, chief component of liberal theology, verbal plenary, inspiration of Scripture.
- He was professor of theology at Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921. Some conservative Presbyterians consider him to be the last of the great Princeton theologians before the split in 1929 that formed Westminster Theological Seminary and the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
What was the impact of the Scopes monkey trial on the fundamentalist movement?
It made fundamentalist a radical group and it was the end of main stream fundamentalism. The term now would have a negative connotation.
Who was Karl Barth and what was neo-orthodoxy?
20th century Swiss theologian, he is trying to find a middle ground between liberal and fundamentalism. He was nervous about using the neo orthodoxy terms, because You encounter word. Bible can be ….neo-orthodoxy is the idea to attempt to turn peole back to the bible but a little different way “strange new way, the Bible” and writes commentary on Romans, takes the claim to Bible seriously but about encountering Word. Paper pope. Fundamentalist don’t have a pope but treat the Bible as their paper pope. He was hated by both sides of the spectrum. Some say Bultmann is neo-orthodox.
Other critics have referred to Barth as the father of neo-orthodoxy— a term emphatically rejected by Barth himself.The most accurate description of his work might be "a theology of the Word." The most prolific theologian of the twentieth century, his theological thought emphasized the sovereignty of God, particularly through his interpretation of the Calvinistic doctrine of election. His most famous works are his The Epistle to the Romans, which marked a clear break from his earlier thinking; and his massive thirteen-volume work Church Dogmatics, one of the largest works of systematic theology ever written.
Why was the Enlightenment such a game changer in the West in general and the Western church in particular?
- It replaces faith with reason. Replaces theology with reason. Religion becomes in the realm of faith and science the realm of facts.
- You can believe something about God but you cannot prove it. This is when the Jesus of faith and the historical Jesus come into play.
What was the Holiness Movement?
Pheobe Palmer: Tuesday morning of Sanctification
Focus on the second work of grace, experiential, living out holiness.
- The holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from 19th-century Methodism, and to a number of evangelical Christian denominations who emphasize those beliefs as a central doctrine. The movement is distinguished by its emphasis on John Wesley's "Christian perfection" teaching—the belief that it is
- possible to live free of voluntary sin, and particularly by the belief that this may be accomplished instantaneously through a second work of grace.
The key beliefs of the holiness movement are (1) regeneration by grace through faith, with the assurance of salvation by the witness of the Holy Spirit; (2) entire sanctification as a second definite work of grace, received by faith, through grace, and accomplished by the baptism and power of the Holy Spirit, by which one is enabled to live a holy life.
In the context of the holiness movement, the first work of grace is salvation from sin. Adherents believe that without it, no amount of human effort can achieve holiness. The movement's teaching on salvation is conventionally Protestant - God's people are saved by grace alone, through faith alone in Jesus Christ who made atonement for human sins.
- Holiness adherents believe that the "second work of grace" refers to a personal experience subsequent to regeneration, in which the believer is cleansed of the tendency to commit sin. This experience of sanctification enables the believer to live a
- holy life, and ideally, to live entirely without wilful sin, though it is generally accepted that a sanctified individual is still capable of committing sin.
What is the principal thesis of Philip Jenins’
books, The next Christiandom?
Center of the church is moving from the North to the South and the church will be Pentecostal or Pentecostal-like. Islam will grow in the former European Christianity, Islam will still be minority but influence will be great. The South will be more charismatic and as the southern nations grow it is the New Christiandom.