A&P Seeley 2.5
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What are the four major groups of organic molecules essential to living organisms?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acis
Carbohydrates are composed of…
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
What is the general ratio for carbohydrates?
1 carbon atom : 2 hydrogen atoms : 1 oxygen atom
Why are carbohydrates soluble in polar solvents, such as water?
They are relatively polar molecules
- (means one sugar)
- The building blocks in large carbohydrates
Common six-carbon sugars
Glucose, fructose, galactose
Common five-carbon sugars
Molecules that have the same number and types of atoms but differ in their three-dimensional arrangement
Which sugar is the major carbohydrate found in the blood and is a major nutrient for most cells of the body?
Glucose (aka blood sugar)
- (means two sugars)
- Composed of two simple sugars bound together through a dehydration reaction.
Name some disaccharides important to humans
Sucrose, lactose, maltose
- (table sugar)
- A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose.
- (milk sugar)
- A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose.
- (malt sugar)
- A disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules.
- (means many sugars)
- Consists of many monosaccharides bound together to form long chains that are either straight or branched out.
- (animal starch)
- A polysaccharide composed of many glucose molecules.
Why is glycogen and important energy-storage molecule?
Glucose can be metabolized rapidly to produce energy for cells.
Starch and cellulose
Polysaccharides found in plants. Composed of long chains of glucose.
Which parts of plants provide humans with energy and which parts are indigestible?
- Energy – starch
- Indigestible – cellulose
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