part one

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sasha23
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218381
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part one
Updated:
2013-05-07 18:10:19
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microbiology
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exam 1
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  1. subspecies (subsp.)
    phenotypic
  2. serotyping (serovar)
    serologic
  3. biotyping (biovar)
    biochemical
  4. species can be divided into :
    • Subspecies (subsp.)
    • Serotyping (serovar)
    • Biotyping (biovar)
  5. Eukaryote
    Nucleus is
    membraned
  6. Prokaryote
    Nucleus is
    no membrane
  7. Eukaryote
    DNA for is
    multiple chromosomes
  8. Prokaryote
    DNA form is
    single chromosome
  9. Eukaryote
    Replication is
    mitosis and meiosis
  10. Prokaryote
    Replication is
    binary fission
  11. Eukaryote
    Protein translation is
    ribosomes in endoplasmic reticulum
  12. Prokaryote
    Protein translation is
    ribosomes free in cytoplasm
  13. Eukaryote
    Ribosomes are
    80S= 60S+40S
  14. Prokaryote
    ribosomes are
    70S= 50S+30S
  15. Eukaryote
    organelles are
    membraned
  16. Prokaryote
    Organelles are
    not membraned
  17. Eukaryote
    plasma membrane is
    • lipoprotein bilayer
    • Same as prokaryote
  18. Prokaryote
    plasma membrane is
    • Lipoprotein bilayer
    • Same as eukaryote
  19. Eukaryote
    Cell wall is
    only in fungi and plants
  20. Prokaryote
    cell wall is
    present
  21. cocci
    • Spherical shape
    • Bacteria Morphology
  22. bacilli
    • Rod-shaped
    • Bacteria morphology
  23. Spirochetes
    • Helical shape
    • Bacteria Morphology
  24. pleomorphic
    • bacteria that have varied shapes
    • More than one
  25. 3 basic shapes of bacterial morphology
    • 1. cocci
    • 2. Bacilli
    • 3. Spirochetes
  26. Plasma membrane
    • surrounds cytoplasm
    • Made up of a phospholipid bilayer
    • Regulates transport
    • Location of electron transport chain
  27. Two types of bacterial cell walls
    • gram positive
    • gram negative
  28. gram positive cell wall
    • very thick peptidoglycan layer
    • Teichoic acid (anchored to peptidoglycan)
    • Lipoteichoic acid (anchored to plasma membrane)
  29. peptidoglycan
    • dense and meshlike, but sufficiently porous to allow diffusion of metabolites
    • Can be degraded by lysozyme (enzyme present in human tears, mucus and saliva)
  30. techoic acids
    • covalently linked to peptidoglycan
    • Essential to cell viability
  31. lipoteichoic acids
    have fatty acid and are anchored in cytoplasmic membrane
  32. gram negative cell wall
    • Thin peptidoglycan layer
    • Outer layer of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
  33. three regions of gram negative cell wall
    • O-specific polysaccharide
    • Core polysaccharide
    • Inner lipid A (endotoxin)
  34. The functions of the outer lipopolysaccharide layer of gram negative cell wall
    • Barrier to hydrophobic cmpds and harmful substances
    • A sieve, allowing passage of water-soluble mlcs
    • Provides attachment sites for attachment to host cells
  35. Capsule (glycocalyx)
    • Secreted by bacteria
    • Outside cell wall
    • Made up of polysaccharide polymers
  36. When capsule(glycocalyx) is thick and tightly bound to cell it is called
    capsule
  37. when capsule(glycocalyx) is thinner,diffuse, and less tightly bound it is called
    slime layer
  38. capsule functions
    • Buffer from external environment
    • Averts potential cell desiccation
    • Traps nutrients
    • Aid in bacteria attachment to host
    • Aids in avoiding phagocytosis
  39. Flagella
    • Cell appendage
    • Locomotion
    • rotate
    • helically shaped
    • vary in arrangement and number
  40. Fimbriae
    • Cell appendige
    • Enable organisms to to stick to surgaces
  41. Pili
    • Cell appendige
    • Specialized fimbriae that are used in the exchange of genetic material
  42. Spores can be formed by
    • gram positive bacilli
    • During harsh environmental conditions
  43. In spores bacteria is
    converted from a vegetative state to a dormant state
  44. location of spores can
    • be used for identification
    • Location within cell
  45. spores def.
    dehydrated, multicelled structure that protects and allows the bacteria to exist in "suspended animation"
  46. spores chromosomes
    complete copy
  47. layers of spore
    • Inner membrane
    • 2 peptidoglycan layers
    • Outer keratin-like protein coat
  48. three major nutritional needs of bacteria
    • 1.carbon source-cellular components
    • 2. nitrogen source-protein production
    • 3. energy source- ATP
  49. environmental growth factor bacteria:
    pH
    grow best between 7-7.5
  50. environmental growth factor of bacteria:
    temperature
    • 3 cat.
    • Psychrophiles- 10-20 degrees C
    • Mesophiles- 20-40 deg. C
    • Thermophiles - 50-60 deg. C
  51. Obligate aerobes
    bacteria require oxygen
  52. obligate anaerobes
    • cannot grow in oxygen
    • Toxic for them
  53. facultative anaerobes
    grow best in oxygen, but can grow without it
  54. aerotolerant
    • Dont need oxygen
    • But tolerate its presence
  55. Microaerophilic
    • required reduced level of oxygen
    • Too much is toxic
  56. capnophilic
    grow best when extra CO2 is present
  57. minimal media
    • simple, defined media
    • Not usually used in clinical lab
  58. Nutrient media
    • complex media
    • Enriched,selective,differential media
  59. enriched media
    • Type nutrient media
    • contains added growth factors
  60. selective media
    • Type of nutrient media
    • Contains additives that inhibit the growth of some bacteria
  61. differential media
    • Type of nutrient meida
    • Allows visualizing of metabolic differences

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