A&P Seeley 2.3

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A&P Seeley 2.3
2014-03-11 22:03:02
Sunny03 Anatomy Physiology Seeley Chemical Basis
A&P Seeley
Anatomy & Physiology text, Seeley, Ch 2 The Chemical Basis of Life, part 3/7
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  1. Energy
    • The capacity to do work – move matter.
    • Does not occupy space and has no mass.
  2. Potential energy
    • Stored energy that could do work but is not.
    • (Ball held above the floor)
  3. Kinetic energy
    • Energy that does work and moves matter.
    • (Ball dropped to the floor)
  4. Mechanical energy
    • Results from the position of movement of objects.
    • (Moving a limb)
  5. Chemical energy
    Potential energy within its chemical bonds.
  6. Heat energy
    The energy that flows between objects that are at different temperatures.
  7. Activation energy
    The minimum energy that the reactants must have to start a chemical reaction.
  8. Catalysts
    The substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being permanently changed or depleted.
  9. Enzymes
    • Protein catalysts.
    • They increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy necessary for the reaction to begin.
  10. How does temperature affect the speed of chemical reactions?
    As temperature increases, reactants have more kinetic energy, move at faster speeds, and collide with one another more frequently and with greater force.
  11. Inorganic chemistry
    Deals with substances that do not contain carbon
  12. Organic chemistry
    Deals with substances that contain carbon
  13. What functions does water perform in living organisms?
    • 1. Stabilizes body temperature.
    • 2. Protects the body by providing lubrication.
    • 3. Allows many of the chemical reactions to take place.
    • 4. Allows substances to mix.
  14. Mixture
    A combination of two or more substances physically blended together but not chemically combined.
  15. Solution
    • Any mixture of liquids, gases, or solids in which the substances are uniformly distributed with no clear boundary between the substances.
    • One substance dissolving in another.
    • (air, wax)
  16. Solute
    • The substance that gets dissolved
    • (salt)
  17. Solvent
    • The substance that does the dissolving
    • (water)
  18. Suspension
    • A mixture containing materials that separate from each other unless they are continually, physically blended together.
    • (blood)
  19. Colloid
    • A mixture in which a dispersed substance is distributed throughout a dispersing substance.
    • Protein and water form colloids
    • (plasma, liquid interior of cells)
  20. Osmoles
    Expresses the number of particles in a solution.
  21. Osmolality
    A reflection of the number, not the type, of particles in a solution.
  22. Milliosmole
    1/1000 of an osmole