Health 2a Exam
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. What would you like to do?
What are beliefs?
Beliefs are a persons's sense of right and wrong.
What are the 2 ways a belief may be formed?
- Self Generated
- Externally Generated
Define how a belief may be formed due to experience, and to which category it belongs to
- Experience: People can develop beliefs due to an experience they have had.
- Most powerful way, as it has been proven to the individual.
Eg: Constructs with a cause and effect relationship such as drinking alcohol will make someone drunk.
This belief is unlikely to be changed.
Define how a belief may be formed due to reflection, and to which category it belongs to.
- Self-Generated.A process people use to explain the world around them. Involves the internal processing of a concept to work out what they believe. More abstract than experience.
Eg: Beliefs based on why something is happening, such as when a person ponders how much alcohol it would take to get drunk.
Define how a belief may be formed due to experts, and to which category it belongs to.
- Externally GeneratedFormed by seeking and advice from highly qualified people, by analysing data, interpreting point of view and examining the expert's opinion and belief. People believe the expert's advice or guidance as their knowledge on the subject is respected and trusted.
Eg: Alcohol causes liver disease. This cannot be experience personally by having a drink of alcohol, not everyone has the necessary background, knowledge and expertise to reflect on alcohol use.
Define how a belief may be formed due to authority, and to which category it belongs to.
- Some positions of leadership bring with them power that people will believe what they say purely because of the title they hold. This person of authority may not have evidence.
- Often occurs in parents and young children, believing parent has developed belief from trusted source.
Eg: A child may believe alcohol is unhealthy due to a authority figures belief, without ever experiencing it or reflecting on the content of alcohol themselves.
What is an attitude?
- Defined as positive of negative opinions or feelings about objects, people or constructs.
- Beliefs about particular topics or issues, when seen 'through the eyes' of our values influence the formation of attitudes.
- Beliefs are translated into attitudes through values.
Define the cognitive component of attitudes:
Thoughts and beliefs people hold.
Define the affective component of attitudes:
Define the behavioural component of attitudes:
Predispositions to act in certain ways
What is a value?
Underlying principles that guide decision-making. They are essential and define who we are. Can be culturally acquired.
World seen 'through the eyes' of values.
What is cognitive dissonance?
Multiple conflicting values. Occurs when behaviour does not match beliefs and attitudes.
What are the three actions that can be taken by an individual experiencing cognitive dissonance?
Avoidance, denial or change.
What is culture?
Defined as the way people live, work and play.
What is popular culture?
Refers to the aspects of society that are considered 'mainstream' or common.
What is media?
Communication tools designed to reach large audiences with the purpose of informing or entertaining, or a combination of.
What are the three techniques used by the media to encourage the consumer?
Opportunity: Convince consumer they have limited time, they must act quickly or miss out. This is a persuasive technique.
Incentive: The media sells expectation, where a certain outcome is expected from the product, service or experience.
Barriers: The media sells solutions to barriers. Messages in the media depicting one overcoming barriers and achieving success will influence consumers.
What is a social norm?
Refers to the phenomenon that a lot of people's behaviour is influence by their perception of how other members of their social group behave. They are unwritten rules by which a social groups behaves.
What is a cultural norm?
Behaviour patterns of specific groups due to their cultural upbringing. Relates to geographical location, country of origin, ethnic affiliation and religious practices.
How are social norms constructed?
Like-minded people congregating together. Presence of similar views, preference and opinions leads people to spend time together and the norm is formed.
How are cultural norms constructed?
Formed too by like-minded people congregating, but with less choice from the individual. Cultural norms are usually determined by family expectation.
How are norms transmitted?
Explicit: Written or declared norms that much be followed eg: Dress code on invitation.
Implied: Unwritten and not declared but subtly suggested eg: body language, disapproving glare.
Observed: Required behaviour or attitude obvious due to the adherence by others eg: drinking alcohol at party.
Expectation: Families, employers, schools and social groups place expectations on people to conform or agree with norms in order to fit in and be successful.
What is the promotion of norms?
Norms are promoted by behaviour of the mainstream or majority of the population. The uptake of a belief or behaviour as being popular will usually result in it being promoted as a "norm."
How is a norm promoted?
Can be promoted by the media. Television shows will display fashions, behaviours and lifestyles that will reflect social and cultural norms of the time period.
What are the three areas of the social cognitive model?
Behaviour -> Personal factors (Thoughts, beliefs, cognitive competencies, skills and strategies) -> Environmental factors (social setting, location, culture, peers and family).
What is an introvert?
People who get their energy and emotion from within themselves.
What is an extrovert?
People who get their energy and emotion from the world and the people around them.
Not reacting visible to something that might be expected to produce manifestations of an emotion or feeling.
Characterised by or tending toward unprovoked offensives, attacks, invasions or the like; millitantly forward or menacing.
Confidently aggressive or self-assured; positive.
What are attributes of effective health communication?
- Cultural competence
- Evidence base
What are the social determinants of health?
- Social Gradient
- Early life
- Social exclusion
- Social Support
What is health promotion?
Health promotion is the process of helping (or enabling) people to increase control over, and to improve their health.
In what year and location was the first WHO conference held?
List the pre-requisites for health
- A stable ecosystem
- Sustainable resources
- Social justice and equity
What are the three ways in which health promotion should be established and conducted according to the Ottawa Charter?
- Enable: To make possible by empowering or helping to give strength to or aid with the ability to complete a task
- Mediate: Act between people to help solve problems or disputes, intervene as negotiator or objectively bring about resolution or agreement
- Advocate: To recommend to plead for a cause. To push an agenda or try to influence an outcome.
To make possible by empowering or helping to give strength to or aid with the ability to complete a task
Act between people to help solve problems or disputes, intervene as negotiator or objectively bring about resolution or agreement
To recommend to plead for a cause. To push an agenda or try to influence an outcome.
What are the 5 action areas of the Ottawa charter?
- Build Healthy Public Policy
- Create Supportive Environments
- Strengthening Community Action
- Develop Personal Skills
- Reorient Health Services
What is involved in Building Healthy Public Policy?
Puts health on the agenda of policy makers and helps citizens lead healthy lives by legislating healthy behaviours or banning unhealthy ones.
What is involved in the Creation of Supportive Environments?
People are linked to their environment and this is the basis for a socioecological approach to health. The living and working conditions of individuals and communities need to be safe, stimulating, satisfying and enjoyable in order to promote health and wellbeing.
What is involved in the Strengthening of Community Action?
- Communities need to participate in change in order to be empowered. Empowered communities will take control of their own health, set priorities, plan action and evaluate their effectiveness.
- Eg: Fundraising for health-related schemes.
What is involved in the Developing of Personal Skills?
- People need to be committed to develop skills necessary to lead fulfilling, independent lives where they can make healthy choices. Education at school, home, work and community settings can enable the development of health-related skills.
- Eg: Teaching decision making, communication skills, coping strategies and resiliency.
What is involved in the Reorientation of Health Services?
- Health care facilities and services need to change their attitude and organisation so they refocus their total needs of the individual and recognise the patient as a whole person.
- Eg: Headspace: Helpful information to assist young people with general health, mental health, education, employment, etc.
In What year was The Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion initiated?
2006, Bangkok Thailand.
What are the goals of the Bangkok charter?
- Aims to raise awareness for international action and commitment to address the determinants of health.
- Recognises the world is a global market and countries cannot operate completely separate from one another.
- This charter sets out four key commitments for countries to embrace in order for health to progress in a globalised way.
What are international bodies?
- Organisation that oversee issues concerning many countries
- Eg: The United Nations and the World Health Organisation.
What are the aims stated in the Bangkok charter?
- Make the Promotion of health Central to Global Development
- Make The Promotion of Health a Core
- Responsibility tor all Government
- Make The Promotion of Health a key focus of communities and Civil Society
- Make the Promotion of Health a Requirement for Good Corporate Practice.
Explain "Make The Promotion of Health a Core Responsibility tor all Government"
All governments at all levels must do something about poor health and inequality. This is a matter of urgency because health determines socioeconomic and political development.
Explain "Make the Promotion of health Central to Global Development"
Government and international bodies must work together to close the health gap between rich and poor. Health promotion must become an important and obvious part of nations policy and international relation, including situations of war and conflict.
Explain "Make The Promotion of Health a key focus of communities and Civil Society"
Communities and civil society (eg Rotary or Lions Club) often lead in developing and conducting health promotion. They need to have support from government and international regulations so that their contributions are large and long lasting.
Explain "Make the Promotion of Health a Requirement for Good Corporate Practice."
Businesses and corporations have direct impact on the health of people. Employers have a resonsibility to ensure health and safety in the workplace and to promote the health and wellbeing of their employees, their families and communities.
A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Why is prevention better than a cure?
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