A&P Seeley 2.2

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A&P Seeley 2.2
2014-03-11 22:03:25
Sunny03 Anatomy Physiology Seeley Chemical Basis
A&P Seeley
Anatomy & Physiology text, Seeley, Ch 2 The Chemical Basis of Life, part 2/7
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  1. Chemical Bonding
    When the outermost electrons are transferred or shared between atoms.
  2. What are two major types of chemical bonding?
    Ionic and Covalent
  3. Ion
    A charged particle formed when an atom loses or gains electrons and the number of protons and electrons are unequal.
  4. Positively charged ion
    • When an atom has one more proton than electrons
    • *Cations
  5. Negatively charged ion
    • When an atom has one more electron than protons
    • *Anions
  6. Cation
    Positively charged ion
  7. Anion
    Negatively charged ion
  8. Ionic bonding
    When cations and anions remain close together.
  9. Covalent bonding
    • When atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
    • *Forms a molecule
  10. Single covalent bond
    When two atoms share one pair of electrons
  11. Double covalent bonding
    When two atoms share two pairs of electrons
  12. Nonpolar covalent bonds
    When electrons are shared equally between atoms
  13. Polar covalent bond
    When atoms are bound together by a covalent bond but do not share their electrons equally.
  14. Molecules with polar covalent bonds have…
    Positive and negative ends.
  15. Molecule
    Two or more atoms that chemically combine to form a structure that behaves as an independent unit.
  16. Compound
    A substance composed of two or more different types of atoms that are chemically combined.
  17. Molecular mass
    Can be determined by adding up the atomic masses of its atoms (or ions)
  18. Intermolecular forces
    Results from the week electrostatic attractions between the oppositely charged parts of molecules, or between ions and molecules. Intermolecular forces are much weaker than the forces producing chemical bonding.
  19. Intermolecular force results from…
    The attractions of the positive end of one polar molecule to the negative end of another polar molecule.
  20. Solubility
    The ability of one substance to dissolve in another.
  21. Dissociate
    When a substance separates and dissolves.
  22. Electrolytes
    Cations and anions that dissociate in water and have the capacity to conduct an electric current, which is the flow of charged particles.
  23. Chemical reaction
    Atoms, ions, molecules, or compounds interact either to form or to break chemical bonds.
  24. Reactants
    The substances that enter into a chemical reactions.
  25. Products
    The substances that result from the chemical reaction.
  26. Synthesis reactions
    When two or more reactants chemically combine to form a new and larger product
  27. Example of synthesis reaction
    Two amino acids combine to form a dipeptide.
  28. Dehydration reactions
    • Synthesis reactions in which water is a product.
    • (water out)
  29. ATP
    Adenosine TriPhosphate
  30. Anabolism
    All of the synthesis reactions that occur within the body.
  31. Catabolism
    The collective decomposition reactions that occur in the body.
  32. Metabolism
    All of the anabolic and catabolic reactions in the body.
  33. Decomposition reaction
    • The reverse of a synthesis reaction.
    • A larger reactant is chemically broken down into two or more smaller products.
  34. Hydrolysis reactions
    • (water dissolution)
    • When water is split into two parts and each part contributes to one new molecule.
  35. Reversible reaction
    A chemical reaction in which the reaction can proceed from reactants to products or from products to reactants.
  36. Equilibrium
    The amount of reactants relative to the amount of products remains constant.
  37. Oxidation
    When an atom loses an electron.
  38. Reduction
    When an atom gains an electron.
  39. Oxidation-reduction reaction
    When one atom loses an electron (oxidation) and another atom gains it (reduction).