Urinary

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esellers
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218412
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Urinary
Updated:
2013-05-07 20:58:53
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Urinary
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Urinary
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  1. The enzyme which aids in maintaining blood pressure and kidney function
    Renin
  2. Kidney helps in the metabolism of Vitamin
    D
  3. The medial surface of the kidney is concave and has a cleft called
    Hilus
  4. Drop of kidney to a lower position is called______ and causes______
    Ptosis and hydronephrosis
  5. Infection of renal pelvis and calyces is
    Pyelitis
  6. Inflammation of the entire kidney is
    Pyelonephritis
  7. The lack of which branches distinguishes renal arteries and veins
    Lobar and Segmental veins
  8. ______ and _____ splanchnic nerves forms the renal plexus
    Thoracic and Lumbar
  9. The functional unit of the kidney is
    Nephron
  10. Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule has branching epithelial cells called
    Podocytes
  11. The hairpin loop of the nephron is called
    Loop of Henle
  12. Name the two types of nephrons
    Cortical and Juxtaglomerular
  13. _____ arteriole feeds and _____ arteriole drains the nephron.
    Afferent and Efferent
  14. Vascular bed encircling the loop for reabsorption is
    Vasa Recta
  15. Juxtaglomerular cells act as
    Mechanoreceptors
  16. ____ act as chemo osmoreceptors
    Macula Densa
  17. Fluids and solutes pass through membrane in Bowman's capsule by
    Hydrostatic pressure
  18. Myogenic and Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism regulates
    Diameter of arterioles
  19. Renin-angiotensin mechanism maintains
    Homeostasis of systemic blood pressure
  20. Renin which acts on angiotensinogen is released by
    Juxtaglomerular
  21. Angiotensin stimulates release of ____ from adrenal cortex
    Aldosterone
  22. Reclaiming Sodium ions is facilitated by
    Aldosterone
  23. Low urinary output is called
    Anuria
  24. Release of renin from JG cells is by binding of norepinephrine to
    B-adrenergic receptors
  25. Tubular reabsorption is a ______ process.
    Transepithelial
  26. Tubule cells are connected by
    Tight junction
  27. The reabsorption process is under the control of
    Hormones
  28. Absorption against electrical and chemical gradients is a _____ process
    Active
  29. In hyperglycemia, _____ are saturated and hence glucose is sent out.
    Carriers
  30. Plasma proteins in filtrate are reabsorbed by a process called
    Pinocytosis
  31. Movement along gradients is a ______ process.  Examples are______
    • Passive
    • Diffusion and Osmosis
  32. Sodium active transport creates gradient for passive diffusion of _____ and ______
    Cl and HCO3
  33. Sodium linked water flow is called
    Obligatory water reabsorption
  34. Phenomenon of solute following movement of solvent is called
    Solvent drag
  35. End products of protein and nucleotide metabolism are
    Urea, creatine, and Uric Acid
  36. _______, large molecule which is sent out through urine (An index of GFR)
    Creatine
  37. Proximal tubule cells completely reabsorbs _____ and ______
    Glucose and Amino Acid
  38. Water regulation is under the control of ______ hormone
    Antidiuretic
  39. Sodium reabsorption is under the control of _____
    Aldosterone
  40. ______ released by atrial cardiac cells inhibits Sodium reabsorption
    Aritialnatriuretic factor
  41. Name 3 substances which are secreted from tubule cells and are sent out
    H+, K+, creatine
  42. Mention 2 reasons why tubular secretion is important
    Removes extra K+ and maintains pH
  43. The number of solute particles dissolved in 1 liter of water is
    Osmolarity
  44. Osmolarity is maintained by ______ and ______
    Counter current mechanism and medullary osmotic gradient
  45. _______ acts as a counter current exchanger maintaining osmotic gradient
    Vasa Recta
  46. Urine flow is inhibited by _____ hormone
    Antidiuretic
  47. Facultative water reabsorption is dependent on________
    Antidiuretic hormone
  48. Chemicals that enhance urinary output are called
    Diuretics
  49. Alcohol increases ______ by inhibiting the release of
    Diuretics and Vasopressin
  50. Caffeine increases diuresis by promoting _____ and _______
    Vasodilation and Increasing GFR
  51. Kidney's ability to clear substances in a minute is termed________
    Renal clearance
  52. Damage to the glomerulus can be assessed by measuring______
    Renal Clearance
  53. A polysaccharide used as a standard to determine Glomerular filtration rate.
    Insulin
  54. Pale yellow color of urine is due to
    Urochrome
  55. Fruity odor of urine in diabetes is due to
    Acetone
  56. Renal calculi or kidney stones are formed by crystals of
    Calcium, magnesium, and uric acid
  57. _____ is the procedure used to break renal calculi using sound waves.
    Lithotripsy
  58. Region where ureters and urethra opens in bladder is called
    Trigone
  59. ____ muscle helps in maintaining the pressure in the bladder.
    Detrusor
  60. The sphincter at the junction of bladder and urethra is
    Internal urethral
  61. The sphincter surrounding urethra in pelvic floor is
    External urethral
  62. _____ sphincter is involuntary where as _____ sphincter is voluntary
    Internal/external
  63. _____ muscle of the pelvic floor also acts as voluntary sphincter (constricts urethra)
    Levator Ani
  64. Inflammation of urethra is
    Urethritis
  65. Bladder inflammation is
    Cystitis
  66. Painful urination is called
    Dysuria
  67. Voiding or urination is also called
    Micturition
  68. Inability to control micturition is called
    Incontinence
  69. 3 sets of kidneys appear during development and ______ remains
    Metanephron
  70. Horse shoe kidney is a result of
    Fused Kindeys
  71. When bladder and ureters protrude through abdominal wall it is called
    Exstrophy
  72. The presence of urethral orifice on ventral side of penis is called
    Hypospadias
  73. Congenital polycystic kidney is due to
    Urine filled sacs in Kidney
  74. The urge to urinate at night is called
    Nacturia
  75. Azotemia results due to
    Nitrogenous waste accumulation
  76. Total body response to azotemia is called
    Uremia
  77. The process of cleaning Kidneys when they are shut down is called
    Dialysis
  78. Continuous ambulatory dialysis uses _____ membrane as a dialysis apparatus
    Peritoneal

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