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What is the action during the HBV lifecycle?
- Enters the cell as DNA
- Produces RNA in the nucleus
- Turns RNA to DNA (reverse transcription)
- Packages DNA into viral capsids
What is the disease action of HBV?
Multiplies in the liver and continually seed the blood with virions
How many virions are found in the blood of HBV infected patients?
10^7 virions/mL of blood
How much blood does it take to infect someone with HBV?
Minute amounts because there are so many virions in the blood
What groups have a particularly high incidence of HBV?
Can HBV become Chronic?
What doe HBV increase the risk of?
Liver cancer = hepatocellular carcinoma
What are the clinical features of HBV?
- Enlarged liver
- abdominal pain
- Low white blood cell count
A person that presents with a rash on the chest, arthritis, an enlarged liver, abdominal pain, Low WBC count and a fever, likely has what disease?
How is HBV transmitted?
- Through a break in the skin or mucus membrane
- injection into Blood
What happens to most patients infected with HBV?
- few overt symptoms
- Eventually develop HBV immunity
What HBV symtpoms are considered severe?
What HBV symptoms are normal and not severe?
- abdominal discomfort
What percent of HBV infected individuals develop acute liver failue?
What proportion of HBV infected individuals develop necrosis or cirrhosis?
What is used to diagnose HBV?
- examination of risk factors
- Serological tests = radioimmunoassay and ELISA
HBV screening id necessary for what?
- Blood transfusion
- Semen at sperm banks
- organs for transplant
- routine prenatal testing
What are chronic HBV infections treated with?
Interferon alpha or pegylated interferon
What are mild cases of HBV treated with?
Symptom support only
What is the treatment for people that may have been exposed to HBV, including neonates born to infected mothers?
Immunoprophylaxis with Anti-HB immunoglobulin
What is the primary form of prevention for HBV?
vaccination for high risk individuals and newborns
What are nucleoside analogs that are used to treat HBV?
What is entecavir?
Deoxyguanosine analog used in HBV treatments
What is Telbivudine?
Thymidine analog used to treat HBV
What is Lamivudine, abacavir and tenofovir?
- HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- Nucleoside analog
What type of virus is the Adenovirus?
- Double-stranded DNA
What body areas are infected by adenovirus?
- Lymphoid tissue
- respiratory tissue
- intestinal epithelia
What diseases does Adenovirus cause?
- acute hemorrhagic cystitis
What virus group causes colds, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis?