Sociology

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lcunrod7
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218490
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Sociology
Updated:
2013-05-08 01:33:08
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sociology
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definitions
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  1. network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction
    social structure
  2. is a socially defined position in a group or in a society
    status
  3. is the behavior- the rights and obligations- expected of someone occupying a particular status
    role
  4. is assigned according to qualities beyond a persons control
    ascribed status
  5. individuals acquire this status through their own direct efforts
    achieved status
  6. plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social idenity
    master status
  7. are the behaviors of social structure that bring statuses to life
    roles
  8. are corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
    reciprocal role
  9. socially determined behavior expected of a person performing a role
    role expectations
  10. peoples actual role behavior- does not always match the behavior expected by society
    role performance
  11. different role attached to a single status
    role set
  12. occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status make it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status
    role conflict
  13. occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status
    role strain
  14. is the process people go through to detach from a role that has been central to their self-identity
    role exit
  15. these statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society
    social institution
  16. what are the 5 basic social institutions?
    family, economic institutions, political institutions, education, and religion
  17. the reason or drive that a person does something
    motivation
  18. whenever people interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions
    exchange
  19. the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return
    reciprocity
  20. people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with others
    exchange theory
  21. occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
    competition
  22. is the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person
    conflict
  23. occurs when two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person
    cooperation
  24. is a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
    accommodation
  25. what are the four types of accomodatoin?
    compromise, truce, mediation, arbitration
  26. occurs when the two parties at odds each give up something to come to a mutual agreement
    compromise
  27. temporarily brings a halt to the competition or conflict until a compromise can be reached
    truce
  28. calling in a third party who acts as the adviser and counselors to guide the two parties toward an agreement
    mediation
  29. a third party makes a decision that is binding on both parties
    arbitrtatoin
  30. is a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity
    group
  31. food production, which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor
    preindustrial society
  32. what are the four types of preindustrial societies?
    hunter-gather, pastoral, horticultural,agricultural
  33. a type of society in which the mechanized production of goods is the main economic activity, production of goods to the production of manufactured goods
    industrial society
  34. a type of society in which economic activity centers on the production of information and the provisions of services (technology) rather than on manufacturing
    postindustrial society
  35. a group that produces or is based on community of interests, objectives, and standards
    solidarity
  36. the close-knit social relationships common in preindustrial societies that result when a small group of people share the same values and perform the same tasks
    mechanical solidarity
  37. impersonal social relationships, common in industrial societies, that arise with increased job specialization, division of labor
    organic solidarity
  38. community, most people know one another, relationships are close, and activities center in family and community
    gemeinschaft
  39. society, people share a strong sense of group solidarity, relationship based on need rather than emotion
    gesellschaft
  40. occurs whenever the actions of one person cause another person or persons to act
    interaction
  41. when people gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction
    aggregate
  42. is simply a means of classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status
    social category
  43. four major functions of a group?
    must consist of two or more people,  there must be interaction among members, group members must have shared expectations, the members must posses some sense of common identity
  44. the smallest group possible, a group with two members
    dyad
  45. a three person group
    tryad
  46. the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
    formal group
  47. there is no official structure or established rules of conduct
    informal group
  48. is a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on direct and personal basis
    primary group
  49. is a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
    secondary group
  50. any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt
    reference group
  51. the group that a person belongs to and identifies
    in-group
  52. any group that the person does not belong to or identify
    out-group
  53. people interact with one another regularly on the internet
    electronic community
  54. the web of relationships formed by the sum of a persons interactions with other people
    social network
  55. people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others, can be assigned
    leader
  56. are task oriented leaders
    instrumental
  57. are emotion oriented leaders
    expressive
  58. behavior in accordance with accepted rules or conventions
    conformity
  59. describes a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
    formal orgainziations
  60. is a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
    bureaucracy
  61. involves subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control
    rationality
  62. what are the five models of bureaucracies?
    division of labor, ranking of authority, employment based on formal qualifications, written rules and regulations, and specific line of promotion and advancement
  63. is a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest
    voluntary associations
  64. situation in which a few people rule the many
    oligarchy
  65. tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
    iron law of oligarchy

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