MIC 541-Exam 5-Virology 23
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What are the symptoms of Dengue fever?
- Hemorrhagic shock syndrome
- Breakbone fever
- Extreme muscle and joint pain
What is the worst outcome for Dengue fever?
Can be fatal
Is there a vaccine for Dengue fever?
No, though one went to trial in 2010
Is dengue fever usually a mild or severe infection?
Describe the classification of retroviruses:
- RNA virus
- Single stranded genome
What are retroviruses that cause human disease?
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- T-cell leukemia virus
Why do Retroviruses evolve rapidly?
High error rate of reverse transcription
Describe the error rate between the different genomes in viruses?
RT>RNA pol>DNA pol
What is a hallmark activity of Retroviruses other than RT?
Integration into host genome
What is the significance of Retroviruses integration into the hosts genome?
- Markers of evolution
- Insertional activation of oncogenes
- Have gene delivery vectors
How do retroviruses activate oncogenes?
Insertion into the hosts genome
How do retroviruses insert into the host's genome?
gene delivery vectors
Where does reverse transcription occur with a retrovirus?
In the cytoplasm
Describe the replication process of Retroviruses:
- RNA virus enters the cell
- RT occurs in the cytoplasm
- DNA genome inserts into hosts genome in the nucleus
- Transcription of Viral genes in nucleus
- Translation of viral proteins for capsule in ER
- Packaging and Assembly of viral capsule in Golgi, which migrate to cell membrane and attach
- Translation and assembly of viral contents in the cytoplasm
- Viruses bud off
When does HIV maturation occur?
After budding off
What is a major step in HIV-1 matuation?
Protease cleaves polyproteins
Why is it significant that a protease cleaves the polyprotein in HIV-1 maturation?
Required for virulence
When was AIDS nationally recognized?
What virus did HIV-1 originate from?
HIV-2 origionated from what?
Second species jump
Where is HIV-2 found?
What is HIV-2 like?
Less pathogenic that HIV-1
When was the first documented case of AIDS?
Genetic studies suggest that the first AIDS jump occured in what time period?
What is one of the most well studied viruses?
- What are the receptor proteins called on the outside of the HIV capsule?
- GP-120 and GP-41
What is the mediator for Reverse transcriptase in Retroviruses?
RNA-dependant DNA polymerase
What is the activity of RNA-dependant DNA polymerase?
- Has RNase H activity
- Coverts ssRNA to dsDNA
At what point does RT occur?
After the virus uncoats
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