MIC 541-Exam 5-Virology 24
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What are the two types of error generated by RT?
- Strand transfers
- Nucleotide mis-incorporation
What type of errors are introduced by strand transfers?
What are important end product changes produced from strand transfers?
Addition and deletion of antigenic and glycosylation sites on the envelope
What kind of changes are made to the genome due to nucleotide misincorporation?
May alter any aspect
What is the target of most antiretoriviral drugs?
What are the two classes of anti-reverse transcriptase drugs used to treat retroviruses?
- Nucleoside inhibitors
- Non-nucleoside inhibitors
What was the first Anti-HIV drug?
What is the action of Antiretrovirus Nucleoside inhibitors?
Analogs that are incorporated by RT and block elongation
What are non-nucleotide anti-retorviral anti-reverse transcriptase drugs?
Compounds that interact and inhibit RT but are not nucleoside analogs
How many people worldwide have HIV?
Is the incidence of HIV increasing or decreasing in the U.S.?
Held steady since 2006
How many people in the U.S. have HIV?
What is the sixth most common cause of death in people between 25 and 44 years in the U.S.?
How is HIV transmitted?
- Sexual intercourse
- Transfer of Blood or Blood products
- Babies infected during birth or breast feeding
Is the transmission rate even between men and women?
- For vaginal sex the transmission rate is higher from men to women
What was a significant factor in the spread of HIV to the heterosexual population?
IV drug users
How long does HIV survive outside the body?
Not very long
Through what tissue does HIV enter the body?
Once in the skin, where does HIV travel to?
Dendritic phagocytes beneath the epithelium
What does HIV do once in the dendritic phagocytes below the epithelium?
Multiplies and Spreads
After leaving the Dendritic phagocytes, where does HIV migrate to?
- Macrophages of the skin
- Lymph organs
- Bone marrow
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