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What is the major site of replication for HIV?
Lymph nodes in the Gut
Describe the cellular pathology of HIV:
- Viral DNA is incorporated in Host's DNA
- Lytic or latent infections can be produced
How is HIV diagnosed?
- Serum antibody tests:
- Screening = ELISA, latex agglutination and rapid antibody tests
- Follow up/confirmation = Western blot
- PCR to detect viral nucleic acids
What testing methods for HIV incur false positive regularly?
ELISA, latex agglutination, Rapid antibody tests
Can false negatives occur in HIV diagnosis?
Yes, so people who may have been exposed should be tested in 3-6 months again
How many samples are tested by PCR at once?
What are symptoms of HIV directly related to?
Viral blood levels and t-cell levels
Viral blood levels and T-cell levels of patients with HIV are directly related to what else?
What are the initial symptoms of HIV infection?
mononucleosis-like symptoms that soon disappear
How long is the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection?
2-15 years (average of 10 years)
When do AIDS symptoms appear?
When T-cell levels fall below 200/uL
What symptoms appear when HIV patients T-cell fall below 100/uL?
- swollen lymph nodes
- weight loss
- neurological symptoms
- opportunistic infections
What are the primary effects of an HIV infection?
- Extreme leucopenia
- Formation of giant T cells
- Infected macrophages
What releases HIV into the CNS?
What do giant T cells of HIV mediate?
Allow the virus to spread directly from cell to cell
What are the major secondary effects of HIV?
- Destruction of CD4 lymphocytes=opportunistic infection
- Chronic immune activation leads to immune dysfunction
- Endotoxins and gut flora enter the circulatory system due to destruction of gut immune defenses
How is a full diagnosis of AIDS made?
- Positive for virus
- One of the following:
- CD4 blood count of <200cells/mL
- CD4 cells ,14% of total lymphocytes
- Present with 1+ of AIDS defining illnesses
Who produces the AIDS defining illenesses guide?
What are the prevention techniques for HIV?
- Monogamous sexual relationships
What do HIV therapies do?
- Slow the progress of the disease by:
- inhibiting viral enzymes
- Inhibiting fusion