MIC 541-Exam 5-Virology 26

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MIC 541-Exam 5-Virology 26
2013-05-08 03:07:14
MIC 541 Exam Virology 26

MIC 541-Exam 5-Virology 26
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  1. Anti-retroviral therapy consists of what?
    • Combo of 3 antiviral drugs
    • Typically 2 Non-nucleosides and 1 nucleoside
  2. What are the four areas of HIV viral replication that are combated in treatments?
    • Fusion
    • RT
    • Integration into host genome
    • Maturation
  3. What are the 5 classes of antiretroviral drugs?
    • Nucleoside
    • Non-nucleoside
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Integrase inhibitors
    • Fusion inhibitors
  4. How do HIV protease inhibitors work?
    • Block maturation
    • Inhibit Gag and Gag-Pol protein cleavage
  5. How do Antiretroviral Integrase inhibitors work?
    Bind Mg2+ binding pocket and block Integrase processing of viral DNA
  6. How do Antiretroviral Fusion inhibitors work?
    Peptide analogs that bind to fusion peptide gp41 and prevent fusion
  7. What is a multi-class combination Anti-HIV drug?
  8. Why do traditional vaccines not work for HIV?
    • Quasispecies make a single genetic epitope useless
    • Humoral immunity is ineffective
    • Inability to design a vaccine that elicits CTL response
    • Live attenuated vaccine is unthinkable
  9. What is a Quasispecies?
    Highly mutagenic species
  10. Why is humoral immunity ineffective against HIV?
    • HIV envelope is heavily glycosylated
    • Envelope is also highly variable
  11. Why is a live attenuated vaccine unthinkable?
    • Integration would mean that vaccinated would become carriers
    • Over time carriers would gain mutations an live virus would be made
    • Recombination could lead to a more pathogenic virus
  12. What are areas of interest for future HIV vaccines?
    • DNA vaccines and antigen expressing vectors
    • Vaccinate mucosal sites
    • Designer envelope proteins that facilitate neutralizing antibodies
  13. Why might vaccination at mucosal sites be effective for HIV?
    Evidence that CD8 T cell response may restrict size of viral founder populations t mucosal surfaces
  14. Why did the Thailand success study for HIV vaccines fail?
    Difference in placebo and vaccinated group came from the low to medium risk group
  15. Why did the STEP study fail?
    • Ineffective
    • Found to be somewhat enhancing of infection in African population
  16. What type of vaccine was the STEP study testing?
    • V520 Ad5 recombinant vector designed to elicit CTL response
    • Adenovirus expressing HIV proteins
  17. What are some promoted ways for stopping the IV epidemic?
    • Circumcision
    • Education
    • Prophylaxis
  18. What is a recommended prophylaxis for HIV?
    • Low dose ART in high risk groups (discordant couples and prostitutes)
    • Vaginal and Anal gels
  19. Who is timothy Ray Brown?
    HIV patient that received a bone-marrow transplant from a CCR5-delta32 individual is now HIV free
  20. What is CCR5-delta32?
    Truncated 32 AAs for CCR5 co-receptor of HIV
  21. What population does CCR5-delta32 naturally occur in?
    10% of European population