Chapter 16 The Endocrine System (TB)

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lonelygirl
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218513
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Chapter 16 The Endocrine System (TB)
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2013-05-19 00:56:51
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.

    A) aldosterone
    B) secretin
    C) cortisol
    D) insulin
    C) cortisol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the ________.

    A) adrenal medulla
    B) pancreas
    C) thyroid gland
    D) thymus gland
    D) thymus gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.

    A) second messengers
    B) nucleotides
    C) ions
    D) deactivators
    A) second messengers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

    A) enzyme
    B) humoral
    C) neural
    D) hormonal
    A) enzyme
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.

    A) proteins
    B) enzymes
    C) antibodies
    D) hormones
    D) hormones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________.

    A) is partly contained within the infundibulum
    B) is the site of prolactin synthesis
    C) connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
    D) conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis
    A) is partly contained within the infundibulum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

    A) polyphagia
    B) polyuria
    C) polydipsia
    D) All of these are signs.
    D) All of these are signs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?

    A) strength of the bond between the receptor and hormone
    B) number of receptors for that hormoneĀ 
    C) blood levels of hormone
    D) type of hormone
    D) type of hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Oxytocin ________.

    A) is an adenohypophyseal secretion
    B) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
    C) controls milk production
    D) exerts its most important effects during menstruation
    B) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. ADH ________.

    A) increases urine production
    B) is produced in the adenohypophysis
    C) promotes dehydration
    D) is inhibited by alcohol
    D) is inhibited by alcohol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.

    A) acting to decrease basal metabolic rate
    B) exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism
    C) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
    D) causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decreasing blood pressure
    C) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Gonadocorticoid(s) ________.

    A) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
    B) synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgens
    C) secretion inhibition is highly dependent on a negative feedback loop involving ACTH
    D) hypersecretion can result in adrenogenital syndrome, also called feminization
    A) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.

    A) diabetes mellitus
    B) down-regulation
    C) cellular inhibition
    D) metabolism of protein kinases
    B) down-regulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

    A) direct control of the nervous system
    B) an increase in enzymatic activity
    C) a change in membrane potential
    D) the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
    A) direct control of the nervous system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

    A) nothing all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
    B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
    C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
    D) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
    C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

    A) feedback loop
    B) general circulatory system
    C) hypophyseal portal system
    D) hepatic portal system
    C) hypophyseal portal system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.

    A) it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location
    B) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
    C) it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release
    D) embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional
    B) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.

    A) stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen
    B) increasing blood pressure
    C) finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity
    D) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
    D) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.

    A) increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
    B) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
    C) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
    D) not responding to a feedback mechanism
    B) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ________.

    A) the protein kinases are rapidly metabolized
    B) there are thousands of receptors on the cell membrane
    C) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
    D) the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time
    C) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.

    A) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
    B) hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly
    C) the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit
    D) peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without assistance from other messengers
    A) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.

    A) insulin, because insulin is a small peptide
    B) glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone
    C) growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
    D) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
    D) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.

    A) renin
    B) angiotensinogen
    C) estrogen
    D) epinephrine
    D) epinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

    A) protein synthesis
    B) catabolic inhibition
    C) the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates
    D) humoral stimulation
    D) humoral stimulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

    A) the adrenal glands
    B) bones and skeletal muscles
    C) the blood vessels
    D) the liver
    B) bones and skeletal muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.

    A) slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity
    B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
    C) antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin
    D) blocking the action of growth hormone
    B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?

    A) the heart
    B) the kidney
    C) the skin
    D) the spleen
    A) the heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.

    A) estrogen
    B) epinephrine
    C) testosterone
    D) cortisol
    D) cortisol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Leptin is secreted by ________.

    A) adipocytes
    B) goblet cells
    C) lymphocytes
    D) fibroblasts
    A) adipocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.

    A) insulin
    B) aldosterone
    C) glucagon
    D) cortisol
    B) aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?

    A) aldosterone
    B) epinephrine
    C) cortisone
    D) estrogen
    B) epinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?

    A) second-messenger systems
    B) a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
    C) an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP
    D) extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone
    B) a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.

    A) cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger
    B) hormone binding to intracellular receptors
    C) possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
    D) formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates
    C) possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.

    A) first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
    B) enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary
    C) enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone-containing blood to the pituitary
    D) travel by arteries to the pituitary
    A) first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. ACTH ________.

    A) causes the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla
    B) is secreted by the posterior pituitary
    C) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
    D) is not a tropic hormone
    C) secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?

    A) Increased calcitonin levels will cause increased blood calcium levels.
    B) High calcium levels cause bone resorption.
    C) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
    D) Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in osteoblast activity.
    C) Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Aldosterone ________.

    A) presence increases potassium concentration in the blood
    B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption
    C) production is greatly influenced by ACTH
    D) is secreted by the neurohypophysis
    B) functions to increase sodium reabsorption
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is ________.

    A) GH
    B) ADH
    C) ACTH
    D) TH
    D) TH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which organ does not have hormone production?

    A) liver
    B) heart
    C) skin
    D) kidney
    A) liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.

    A) the cell's sensitivity reaction
    B) up-regulation
    C) cellular affinity
    D) a reaction to a stressor
    B) up-regulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Eicosanoids do not include ________.

    A) leukotrienes
    B) hydrocortisones
    C) paracrines
    D) prostaglandins
    B) hydrocortisones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.

    A) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
    B) The physician is wrong in a hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence fertility.
    C) FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males.
    D) The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.
    A) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone in adults?

    A) liver
    B) brain
    C) thyroid gland
    D) spleen
    A) liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?

    A) It is very specific in the cell type it targets.
    B) It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
    C) It is a stimulant of cellular metabolism and targets all cells.
    D) It causes positive feedback.
    B) It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?

    A) by blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response
    B) by decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure
    C) by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
    D) by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin
    C) by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid based hormones?

    A) iron
    B) sodium
    C) calcium
    D) chlorine
    C) calcium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. ________ are hormones synthesized from cholesterol.
    Steroids
  48. ________ is a hormone that has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breasts.
    Prolactin
  49. ________ are the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone.
    Acromegaly and gigantism
  50. The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ________.
    thyroid
  51. Which hormone stimulates production of RBCs and which organ or structure produces it?
    erythropoietin; kidney
  52. Alpha islet cells produce ________, an extremely potent hyperglycemic hormone.
    glucagon
  53. The ________ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity.
    pineal
  54. The ________ gland declines in size and function with age.
    thymus
  55. Endocrine gland stimuli include hormonal, ________, and ________ stimuli.
    humoral; neural
  56. As a result of stress the adenohypophysis releases ________, which stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex that retain sodium and water, increase blood sugar, and begin breaking down fats.
    ACTH
  57. In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation. True or False
    True
  58. The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin-parathormone. True or False
    True
  59. The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin. True or False
    False; lowers
  60. Addison's disease is due to a deficit output of glucocorticoids only. True or False
    False
  61. Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system. True or False
    True
  62. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones. True or False
    True
  63. LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin. True or False
    True
  64. With age, chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deterioration. True or False
    True
  65. Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions. True or False
    True
  66. Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while follicle cells of the parathyroid produce calcitonin. True or False
    False
  67. Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production. True or False
    True
  68. The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis. True or False
    True
  69. The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin. True or False
    True
  70. Most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin. True or False
    False
  71. Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least abundant. True or False
    False
  72. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium. True or False
    True
  73. Although glucagon is a small polypeptide, it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects. True or False
    True
  74. The thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individual. True or False
    True
  75. Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters. True or False
    True
  76. All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH. True or False
    True
  77. Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine. True or False
    True
  78. The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid. True or False
    False
  79. Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones. True or False
    False
  80. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stress. True or False
    False
  81. Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system. True or False
    False
  82. All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA. True or False
    True
  83. All adenohypophyseal hormones except GH affect their target cells via a cyclic AMP second messenger. True or False
    True

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