Chapter 9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue (TB)

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lonelygirl
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218517
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Chapter 9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue (TB)
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2013-05-08 18:46:08
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. With muscular dystrophy ________. 

    A) muscles decrease in size due to loss of fat and connective tissue 
    B) most forms do not appear to be inherited 
    C) most cases appear in young females
    D) muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy 
    D) muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate? 

    A) skeletal 
    B) cardiac 
    C) smooth 
    D) no muscle can regenerate
    C) smooth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Most muscles contain ________. 

    A) a predominance of fast oxidative fibers
    B) a predominance of slow oxidative fibers 
    C) muscle fibers of the same type 
    D) a mixture of fiber types 
    D) a mixture of fiber types
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Fatigued muscle cells that recover rapidly are the products of ________. 

    A) intense exercise of long duration 
    B) intense exercise of short duration 
    C) slow exercise of long duration 
    D) slow exercise of short duration
    B) intense exercise of short duration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The strongest muscle contractions are normally achieved by ________. 

    A) increasing stimulus above the threshold 
    B) increasing stimulus above the treppe stimulus 
    C) increasing the stimulation up to the maximal stimulus 
    D) recruiting small and medium muscle fibers
    C) increasing the stimulation up to the maximal stimulus
  6. Which of the following would be recruited later in muscle stimulation when contractile strength increases? 

    A) large motor units with small, highly excitable neurons 
    B) motor units with the longest muscle fibers 
    C) many small motor units with the ability to stimulate other motor units 
    D) motor units with larger, less excitable neurons
    D) motor units with larger, less excitable neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following is not a usual result of resistance exercise? 

    A) increase in the efficiency of the circulatory system 
    B) increase in the number of myofibrils within the muscle cells
    C) increase in the efficiency of the respiratory system 
    D) increase in the number of muscle cells 
    D) increase in the number of muscle cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. In skeletal muscle contraction, calcium apparently acts to ________. 

    A) remove the blocking action of tropomyosin 
    B) increase the action potential transmitted along the sarcolemma
    C) release the inhibition on Z discs 
    D) cause ATP to bind to actin
    A) remove the blocking action of tropomyosin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Calcium ions bind to the ________ molecule in skeletal muscle cells. 

    A) myosin
    B) troponin 
    C) actin 
    D) tropomyosin 
    B) troponin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Myoglobin ________. 

    A) is a protein involved in the direct phosphorylation of ADP 
    B) breaks down glycogen 
    C) produces the end plate potential
    D) stores oxygen in muscle cells 
    D) stores oxygen in muscle cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. An elaborate network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that functions in calcium storage is the ________. 

    A) sarcoplasmic reticulum 
    B) intermediate filament network 
    C) mitochondria 
    D) myofibrillar network
    A) sarcoplasmic reticulum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. A sarcomere is ________. 

    A) the wavy lines on the cell seen in the microscope
    B) the area between two Z discs 
    C) the nonfunctional unit of skeletal muscle 
    D) the area between two intercalated discs 
    B) the area between two Z discs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Immediately following the arrival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cell there is a short period called the ________ period during which the events of excitation-contraction coupling occur. 

    A) relaxation 
    B) contraction 
    C) latent 
    D) refractory
    C) latent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by ________. 

    A) forming a temporary chemical compound with myosin 
    B) inducing a conformational change in the myofilaments 
    C) forming a chemical compound with actin 
    D) storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP
    D) storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. After nervous stimulation of the muscle cell has ceased, the calcium ________. 

    A) is actively pumped into the extracellular fluid for storage until the next contraction
    B) level in the cytoplasm drops 
    C) is destroyed by cholinesterase 
    D) is chemically bound to the filaments 
    B) level in the cytoplasm drops
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to ________. 

    A) regulate intracellular calcium concentration
    B) synthesize actin and myosin myofilaments 
    C) provide a source of myosin for the contraction process 
    D) make and store phosphocreatine 
    A) regulate intracellular calcium concentration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The striations of a skeletal muscle cell are produced, for the most part, by ________. 

    A) the T tubules
    B) the arrangement of myofilaments 
    C) the sarcoplasmic reticulum 
    D) a difference in the thickness of the sarcolemma 
    B) the arrangement of myofilaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following are composed of myosin? 

    A) all myofilaments 
    B) Z discs
    C) thick filaments 
    D) thin filaments 
    C) thick filaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites? 

    A) Z discs 
    B) thick filaments
    C) actin filaments 
    D) myosin filaments 
    C) actin filaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell?

    A) endomysium 
    B) fascicle
    C) perimysium 
    D) epimysium 
    A) endomysium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Smooth muscles that act like skeletal muscles but are controlled by autonomic nerves and hormones are ________. 

    A) red muscles 
    B) single-unit muscles 
    C) white muscles
    D) multiunit muscles 
    D) multiunit muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Rigor mortis occurs because ________. 

    A) no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules 
    B) sodium ions leak out of the muscle 
    C) proteins are beginning to break down, thus preventing a flow of calcium ions
    D) the cells are dead 
    A) no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which of the following does not act as a stimulus to initiate a muscle contraction? 

    A) hormonal activity 
    B) a change of temperature
    C) a change in the pH of a muscle 
    D) neurotransmitters 
    B) a change of temperature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The term aponeurosis refers to ________. 

    A) the tropomyosin-troponin complex
    B) the rough endoplasmic reticulum 
    C) the bands of myofibrils 
    D) a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element 
    D) a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells is ________. 

    A) myoglobin 
    B) ATP 
    C) hemoglobin 
    D) immunoglobin
    A) myoglobin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The contractile units of skeletal muscles are ________. 

    A) mitochondria 
    B) myofibrils
    C) microtubules 
    D) T tubules 
    B) myofibrils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The site of calcium regulation in the smooth muscle cell is ________. 

    A) calmodulin
    B) troponin 
    C) myosin 
    D) actin 
    A) calmodulin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. One functional unit of a skeletal muscle is ________. 

    A) a sarcomere 
    B) a myofilament 
    C) a myofibril 
    D) the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    A) a sarcomere
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The functional role of the T tubules is to ________. 

    A) enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction 
    B) synthesize ATP to provide energy for
    C) stabilize the G and F actin 
    D) hold cross bridges in place in a resting muscle 
    A) enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. The role of calcium ions in muscle contraction is to ________. 

    A) reestablish glycogen stores 
    B) bind to regulatory sites on troponin, changing the configuration 
    C) act as a third messenger 
    D) initiate the conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen for storage
    B) bind to regulatory sites on troponin, changing the configuration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. The warm-up period required of athletes in order to bring their muscles to peak performance is called ________. 

    A) twitch 
    B) wave summation 
    C) treppe 
    D) incomplete tetanus
    C) treppe
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The main effect of the warm-up period of athletes, as the muscle contractions increase in strength, is to ________. 

    A) convert glycogen to glucose 
    B) tone the muscles and stabilize the joints for the workout 
    C) enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems
    D) increase the myoglobin content 
    C) enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. During vigorous excercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to ________. 

    A) hydrochloric acid 
    B) lactic acid
    C) stearic acid 
    D) a strong base 
    B) lactic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which of the following periods? 

    A) refractory period 
    B) fatigue period
    C) relaxation period 
    D) latent period 
    A) refractory period
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. In an isotonic contraction, the muscle ________. 

    A) rapidly resynthesizes creatine phosphate and ATP
    B) does not change in length but increases tension 
    C) changes in length and moves the "load" 
    D) never converts pyruvate to lactate 
    C) changes in length and moves the "load"
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. The muscle cell membrane is called the ________. 

    A) perimysium 
    B) endomysium 
    C) sarcolemma 
    D) epimysium
    C) sarcolemma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Smooth muscle is significantly different from striated muscle in several ways. Which of the following is true? 

    A) Smooth muscle has transverse tubules. 
    B) Smooth muscle is larger and more powerful than striated muscle. 
    C) Smooth muscle contracts in a twisting way.
    D) The fibers of smooth muscle are arranged quadrangularly. 
    C) Smooth muscle contracts in a twisting way.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The mechanism of contraction in smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle in that ________. 

    A) the site of calcium regulation differs 
    B) the trigger for contraction is a rise in intracellular calcium 
    C) ATP energizes the sliding process
    D) actin and myosin interact by the sliding filament mechanism 
    A) the site of calcium regulation differs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The cells of single-unit visceral muscle ________. 

    A) exhibit spontaneous action potentials 
    B) consist of muscle fibers that are structurally independent of each other
    C) are chemically coupled to one another by gap junctions 
    D) contract all at once 
    A) exhibit spontaneous action potentials
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which of the following statements is not true concerning developmental aspects of muscle? 

    A) Skeletal muscle develops from somites. 
    B) There is no biological basis for the difference in strength between women and men. 
    C) Most muscle tissues develop from myoblasts.
    D) Skeletal muscle is derived from mesoderm. 
    B) There is no biological basis for the difference in strength between women and men.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Which of the following is true about smooth muscle contraction? 

    A) Certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers. 
    B) Smooth muscle cannot stretch as much as skeletal muscle. 
    C) Smooth muscle, in contrast to skeletal muscle, cannot synthesize or secrete any connective tissue elements. 
    D) Smooth muscle has well-developed T tubules at the site of invagination.
    A) Certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Smooth muscle is characterized by all of the following except ________. 

    A) there are more thick filaments than thin filaments 
    B) there are no sarcomeres 
    C) it appears to lack troponin 
    D) there are noncontractile intermediate filaments that attach to dense bodies within the cell
    A) there are more thick filaments than thin filaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Muscle tissue has all of the following properties except ________. 

    A) extensibility 
    B) contractility 
    C) secretion 
    D) excitability
    C) secretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The giant protein titin maintains the organization of the ________ assisting in muscle stretching. 

    A) A band 
    B) M line
    C) Z disc 
    D) I band 
    A) A band
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which of the following statements is true? 

    A) Striated muscle cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei. 
    B) Smooth muscle cells have T tubules. 
    C) Cardiac muscle cells are found in the heart and large blood vessels.
    D) Cardiac muscle cells have many nuclei. 
    A) Striated muscle cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATPs per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is ________. 

    A) the electron transport chain
    B) glycolysis 
    C) the citric acid cycle
    D) hydrolysis 
    B) glycolysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Muscle tone is ________. 

    A) the ability of a muscle to efficiently cause skeletal movements 
    B) a state of sustained partial contraction 
    C) the feeling of well-being following exercise 
    D) the condition of athletes after intensive training
    B) a state of sustained partial contraction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The sliding filament model of contraction involves ________. 

    A) the Z discs sliding over the myofilament
    B) the shortening of thick filaments so that thin filaments slide past 
    C) actin and myosin shortening but not sliding past each other 
    D) actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap 
    D) actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. After nervous stimulation stops, ACh in the synaptic cleft is prevented from continuing stimulation of contraction by ________. 

    A) calcium ions returning to the terminal cisternae 
    B) the action potential stopped going down the overloaded T tubules
    C) acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh 
    D) the tropomyosin blocking the myosin once full contraction is achieved 
    C) acetylcholinesterase destroying the ACh
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which of the following is most accurate? 

    A) Muscle tension remains relatively constant during isotonic contraction. 
    B) T-tubles may be sliding during isotonic contraction. 
    C) Myofilaments slide during isometric contractions.
    D) The I band lenghtens during isotonic contraction. 
    A) Muscle tension remains relatively constant during isotonic contraction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. The most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue is ________. 

    A) the diversity of activity of muscle tissue 
    B) the design of the fibers 
    C) the sarcoplasmic reticulum 
    D) the ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy
    D) the ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Three discrete types of muscle fibers are identified on the basis of their size, speed, and endurance. Which of the following athletic endeavors best represents the use of red fibers? 

    A) a long, relaxing swim 
    B) playing baseball or basketball 
    C) mountain climbing
    D) a sprint by an Olympic runner 
    A) a long, relaxing swim
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Of the following muscle types, which has only one nucleus, no sarcomeres, and rare gap junctions? 

    A) visceral smooth muscle 
    B) skeletal muscle
    C) cardiac muscle 
    D) multiunit smooth muscle 
    D) multiunit smooth muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Hypothetically, if a muscle were stretched to the point where thick and thin filaments no longer overlapped ________. 

    A) ATP consumption would increase since the sarcomere is "trying" to contract
    B) maximum force production would result since the muscle has a maximum range of travel 
    C) cross bridge attachment would be optimum because of all the free binding sites on actin 
    D) no muscle tension could be generated 
    D) no muscle tension could be generated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. An individual has just ingested a chemical that binds irreversibly to the ACh receptors in the sarcolemma. By itself it does not alter membrane potential, yet prevents normal neurotransmitter binding. Ignoring the effects on any other system, the consequence to skeletal muscle would be ________. 

    A) no contraction at all by nervous mechanisms, but contraction if stimulated by an external electrode
    B) no contraction at all by nervous mechanisms 
    C) contraction if stimulated by an external electrode 
    D) irreversible contraction as soon as the first nervous stimulation reached the sarcolemma 
    A) no contraction at all by nervous mechanisms, but contraction if stimulated by an external electrode
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Only ________ muscle cells are alwyas multinucleated.
    skeletal
  57. Claudication might more simply be called ________.
    limping
  58. The end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called the ________.
    insertion
  59. In the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction, an enzyme called ________ is always present.
    acetylcholinesterase
  60. The time in which cross bridges are active is called the period of ________.
    contraction
  61. ________ (color) fibers are slow (oxidative) fibers.
    Red
  62. Only ________ muscle cells commonly branch.
    cardiac
  63. A smooth, sustained contraction is called ________.
    tetanus
  64. Once a motor neuron has fired, all the muscle fibers in a muscle contract. True or False
    False
  65. The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide subunit G actin that bear active sites for myosin attachment. True or False
    True
  66. The force of muscle contraction is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment. True or False
    True
  67. Eccentric contractions are more forceful than concentric contractions. True or False
    True
  68. A motor neuron and all the muscle cells that it stimulates are referred to as a motor end plate. True or False
    False
  69. Peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle. True or False
    True
  70. A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called isometric. True or False
    True
  71. During isotonic contraction, the heavier the load, the faster the velocity of contraction. True or False
    False
  72. During isometric contraction, the energy used appears as movement. True or False
    False
  73. One of the important functions of skeletal muscle contraction is production of heat. True or False
    True
  74. Oxygen debt refers to the oxygen required to make creatine phosphate. True or False
    False
  75. Muscle contraction will always promote movement of body parts regardless of how they are attached. True or False
    False
  76. Although there are no sarcomeres, smooth muscle still possesses thick and thin filaments. True or False
    True
  77. Whereas skeletal muscle cells are electrically coupled, smooth muscle cells appear to be chemically coupled by gap junctions. True or False
    False
  78. Single-unit smooth muscle is found in the intestines. True or False
    True
  79. A resting potential is caused by a difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell. True or False
    True
  80. The effect of a neurotransmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to modify its ion permeability properties temporarily. True or False
    True
  81. When a muscle fiber contracts, the I bands diminish in size, the H zones disappear, and the A bands move closer together but do not diminish in length. True or False
    True
  82. The more slowly a skeletal muscle is stimulated, the greater its exerted force becomes. True or False
    False
  83. Contractures are a result of a total lack of ATP. True or False
    True
  84. Smooth muscles relax when intracellular levels drop but may not cease contractions. True or False
    True
  85. Recruitment is an option in a single-unit smooth muscle cell. True or False
    False

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