Chapter 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue (TB)

Card Set Information

Author:
lonelygirl
ID:
218518
Filename:
Chapter 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue (TB)
Updated:
2013-05-10 01:18:22
Tags:
Biology Anatomy Physiology
Folders:

Description:
Biology 103A
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user lonelygirl on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Direct-acting neurotransmitters ________. 

    A) require cyclic AMP 
    B) open ion channels to provoke rapid responses 
    C) act through second messengers
    D) mediate very slow responses 
    B) open ion channels to provoke rapid responses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following is correct relative to Ohm's law? 

    A) I = R / V 
    B) Current is directly proportional to the voltage. 
    C) R = V + I 
    D) The more intense the stimulus, the more voltage changes.
    B) Current is directly proportional to the voltage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid are called ________. 

    A) astrocytes
    B) oligodendrocytes 
    C) ependymal cells 
    D) Schwann cells 
    C) ependymal cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The sheath of Schwann is also called the ________. 

    A) myelin sheath 
    B) axolemma 
    C) neurilemma 
    D) white matter
    C) neurilemma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Bipolar neurons are commonly ________. 

    A) found in ganglia 
    B) motor neurons 
    C) called neuroglial cells 
    D) found in the retina of the eye
    D) found in the retina of the eye
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle is ________. 

    A) norepinephrine 
    B) gamma aminobutyric acid
    C) cholinesterase 
    D) acetylcholine 
    D) acetylcholine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. A neural circuit in which a single impulse is transmitted over and over is a ________. 

    A) reverberating circuit 
    B) diverging circuit 
    C) converging circuit 
    D) repetitive circuit
    A) reverberating circuit
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the ________. 

    A) absolute refractory period
    B) depolarization 
    C) resting period 
    D) repolarization 
    A) absolute refractory period
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. A neuronal circuit that concentrates or directs a large number of incoming impulses to a rather small number of neurons is called a(n) ________. 

    A) oscillating circuit 
    B) diverging circuit 
    C) parallel circuit
    D) converging circuit 
    D) converging circuit
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following is not a structural feature of a neuron? 

    A) synaptic cleft 
    B) dendrites 
    C) Nissl bodies 
    D) axon
    A) synaptic cleft
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________. 

    A) Schwann cell
    B) dendrite 
    C) axon 
    D) neurolemma 
    C) axon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The chemically gated channel, NMDA, allows ________ ions entry into the nerve cell. 

    A) K+ 
    B) Na+ 
    C) Ca2+ 
    D) Cl-
    C) Ca2+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is the ________. 

    A) cell body 
    B) receptor 
    C) synapse 
    D) effector
    C) synapse
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The role of acetylcholinesterase is to ________. 

    A) stimulate the production of serotonin
    B) destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings
    C) act as a transmitting agent 
    D) amplify or enhance the effect of ACh 
    B) destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system? 

    A) innervation of skeletal muscle
    B) innervation of cardiac muscle 
    C) innervation of glands 
    D) innervation of smooth muscle of the digestive tract 
    A) innervation of skeletal muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called ________. 

    A) tracts
    B) nerves 
    C) ganglia 
    D) nuclei 
    C) ganglia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The term central nervous system refers to the ________. 

    A) brain and spinal cord 
    B) spinal cord and spinal nerves
    C) autonomic nervous system 
    D) brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves 
    A) brain and spinal cord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a(n) ________. 

    A) neurotransmitter 
    B) biogenic amine
    C) cholinesterase 
    D) ion 
    A) neurotransmitter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called a(n) ________. 

    A) afferent neuron 
    B) glial cell
    C) efferent neuron 
    D) association neuron 
    D) association neuron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Saltatory conduction is made possible by ________. 

    A) diphasic impulses 
    B) the myelin sheath 
    C) erratic transmission of nerve impulses
    D) large nerve fibers 
    B) the myelin sheath
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of these ions is actively transported through the cell membrane to establish a resting potential? 

    A) Mg 
    B) Cl 
    C) Ca
    D) Na 
    D) Na
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The part of the neuron that normally receives stimuli is called ________. 

    A) an axon 
    B) a Schwann cell
    C) a neurolemma 
    D) a dendrite 
    D) a dendrite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Choose the statement that is most correct about membrane potential. 

    A) Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode on the axon and grounding the other electrode.
    B) Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode on one end of the axon and another electrode on the other end. 
    C) Voltage would be measured by placing two electrodes on the exterior of the axon. 
    D) Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode inside the membrane and another outside the membrane. 
    D) Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode inside the membrane and another outside the membrane.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The sodium-potassium pump ________. 

    A) pumps three sodium ions inside the cell and two potassium ions outside 
    B) pumps two sodium ions outside the cell and three potassium ions inside 
    C) pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside
    D) pumps two sodium ions inside the cell and three potassium ions outside
    C) pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. An action potential ________. 

    A) involves the influx of negative ions to depolarize the membrane 
    B) involves impulse propagation dependent on chemically gated ion channels
    C) is essential for impulse propagation 
    D) is initiated by potassium ion movement 
    C) is essential for impulse propagation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Select the correct statement about synapses. 

    A) The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.
    B) The release of neurotransmitter molecules gives cells the property of being electrically coupled. 
    C) Neurotransmitter receptors are located on the axons of cells. 
    D) Cells with interconnected cytoplasm are chemically coupled. 
    A) The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which of the following is a good example of a neuromodulator? 

    A) acetylcholine 
    B) any protein 
    C) any carbohydrate 
    D) nitric oxide
    D) nitric oxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which group of fibers spreads impulses at up to 1 meter per second? 

    A) group B fibers 
    B) group D fibers
    C) group A fibers 
    D) group C fibers 
    D) group C fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The sympathetic and parasympathetic are subdivisions of the ________. 

    A) voluntary nervous system 
    B) autonomic nervous system 
    C) central nervous system 
    D) somatic nervous system
    B) autonomic nervous system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Ependymal cells ________. 

    A) are a type of neuron 
    B) are a type of macrophage 
    C) are the most numerous of the neuroglia 
    D) help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
    D) help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Neuroglia that control the chemical environment around neurons by buffering potassium and recapturing neurotransmitters are ________. 

    A) oligodendrocytes 
    B) microglia 
    C) Schwann cells
    D) astrocytes 
    D) astrocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Schwann cells are functionally similar to ________. 

    A) oligodendrocytes 
    B) astrocytes
    C) microglia 
    D) ependymal cells 
    A) oligodendrocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open? 

    A) chloride 
    B) potassium
    C) sodium 
    D) calcium 
    B) potassium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) ________. 

    A) are crucial for the development of neural connections
    B) are found on "pathfinder" neurons 
    C) release nerve growth factor 
    D) are crucial in the production of neurotransmitters 
    A) are crucial for the development of neural connections
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with ________. 

    A) opening of voltage-regulated channels 
    B) a change in sodium ion permeability 
    C) hyperpolarization 
    D) lowering the threshold for an action potential to occur
    C) hyperpolarization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following will occur when an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is being generated on the dendritic membrane? 

    A) Specific sodium gates will open. 
    B) Specific potassium gates will open. 
    C) A single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of sodium and potassium.
    D) Sodium gates will open first, then close as potassium gates open. 
    C) A single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of sodium and potassium.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. When a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy, the resulting graded potential is called a(n) ________. 

    A) action potential 
    B) excitatory potential 
    C) generator potential
    D) postsynaptic potential 
    C) generator potential
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. All of the following are true of graded potentials except that they ________. 

    A) increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point 
    B) can be called postsynaptic potentials
    C) can form on receptor endings 
    D) are short-lived 
    A) increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the following is true about the movement of ions across excitable living membranes? 

    A) Sodium gates in the membrane can open in response to electrical potential changes. 
    B) Ions always move actively across membranes through leakage channels. 
    C) The bulk of the solutions inside a cell are negatively charged.
    D) Some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps. 
    D) Some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. ________ is an indolamine. 

    A) Dopamine 
    B) Serotonin 
    C) Epinephrine 
    D) Tyrosine
    B) Serotonin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until ________. 

    A) the Na ions have been pumped back into the cell 
    B) proteins have been resynthesized 
    C) the membrane potential has been reestablished 
    D) all sodium gates are closed
    C) the membrane potential has been reestablished
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is ________. 

    A) negatively charged and contains more sodium 
    B) negatively charged and contains less sodium 
    C) positively charged and contains less sodium 
    D) positively charged and contains more sodium
    B) negatively charged and contains less sodium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon ________. 

    A) the impulse would move to the axon terminal only 
    B) the impulse would move to the axon terminal only, and the muscle contraction would occur
    C) the impulse would spread bidirectionally 
    D) muscle contraction would occur 
    C) the impulse would spread bidirectionally
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Neurons may be classified according to several characteristics. Which of the following is correct? 

    A) Group C fibers are not capable of saltatory conduction. 
    B) Group B fibers are highly myelinated and have the highest conduction velocities.
    C) A small cross-sectional area allows shorter conduction times.
    D) Group A fibers are mostly somatic sensory and motor and are the smallest in diameter. 
    A) Group C fibers are not capable of saltatory conduction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Select the correct statement about serial processing. 

    A) Memories are triggered by serial processing.
    B) Input travels along several different pathways. 
    C) Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing. 
    D) Smells are processed by serial pathways. 
    C) Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which of the following is not a special characteristic of neurons?

    A) They conduct impulses.
    B) They are mitotic.
    C) They have extreme longevity.
    D) They have an exceptionally high metabolic rate.
    B) They are mitotic.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following is not a function of astrocytes? 

    A) control the chemical environment around neurons
    B) provide the defense for the CNS
    C) guide the migration of young neurons, synapse formation, and helping to determine capillary permeability 
    D) support and brace neurons
    E) anchor neurons to blood vessels
    B) provide the defense for the CNS
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which of the following is not a chemical class of neurotransmitters?

    A) amino acid
    B) acetycholine
    C) biogenic amine
    D) ATP and other purines
    E) nucleic acid
    E) nucleic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which of the following is false or incorrect?

    A) A nerve impulse occurs if the excitatory and inhibitory effects are equal.
    B) An inhibitory postsynaptic potential occurs if the inhibitory effect is greater than the excitatory, causing hyperpolarization of the membrane.
    C) An excitatory postsynaptic potential occurs if the excitatory effect is greater than the inhibitory effect but less than threshold.
    A) A nerve impulse occurs if the excitatory and inhibitory effects are equal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle?

    A) norepinephrine
    B) gamma aminobutyric acid
    C) acetylcholine
    D) cholinesterase
    C) acetylcholine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which of the following describes the nervous system integrative function?

    A) responds to stimuli by gland secretion or muscle contraction
    B) analyzes sensory information, stores information, makes decisions
    C) senses changes in the environment
    B) analyzes sensory information, stores information, makes decisions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of the choices below describes the ANS?

    A) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    B) sensory and motor neurons that supply the digestive tract
    C) sensory neurons that convey information from somatic receptors in the head, body wall, and limbs and from receptors from the special senses of vision, hearing, taste, and smell to the CNS
    D) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
    A) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials?

    A) ligand-gated channel
    B) leakage channel
    C) mechanically gated channel
    D) voltage-gated channel
    D) voltage-gated channel
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. What is the role of acetylcholinesterase?

    A) stimulate the production of serotonin
    B) amplify or enhance the effect of ACh
    C) destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axon endings
    D) act as a transmitting agent
    C) destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axon endings
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What are ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid called?

    A) astrocytes
    B) ependymal cells
    C) oligodendrocytes
    D) Schwann cells
    B) ependymal cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Select the correct statement regarding synapses.

    A) Neurotransmitter receptors are located on the axons of cells.
    B) The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.
    C) The release of neurotransmitter molecules gives cells the property of being electrically coupled.
    D) Cells with interconnected cytoplasm are chemically coupled.
    B) The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the ________ nervous system.
    somatic
  58. ________ are found in the CNS and bind axons and blood vessels to each other.
    Astrocyte
  59. A gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system is called a(n) ________.
    node of Ranvier
  60. ________ law is the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.
    Ohm's
  61. The synapse more common in embryonic nervous tissue than in adults is the ________.
    electrical synapse
  62. When information is delivered within the CNS simultaneously by different parts of the neural pathway, the process is called ________ processing.
    parallel
  63. ________ potentials are short-lived, local changes in membrane potential that can be either depolarized or hyperpolarized.
    Graded
  64. ________ is a disease that gradually destroys the myelin sheaths of neurons in the CNS, particularly in young adults.
    Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  65. When one or more presynaptic neurons fire in rapid order it produces a much greater depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane than would result from a single EPSP; this event is called ________ summation.
    temporal
  66. ________ is a neurotransmitter of the CNS that is used by Purkinje cells of the CNS.
    GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
  67. The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell must be stimulated for conduction to take place. True or False
    False
  68. Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli. True or False
    True
  69. Efferent nerve fibers may be described as motor nerve fibers. True or False
    True
  70. Saltatory conduction occurs because of the presence of salt (NaCl) around the neuron. True or False
    False
  71. Cell bodies of sensory neurons may be located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system. True or False
    True
  72. Myelination of the nerve fibers in the central nervous system is the job of the oligodendrocyte. True or False
    True
  73. During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative. True or False
    True
  74. Neurons in the CNS are organized into functional groups. True or False
    True
  75. Strong stimuli cause the amplitude of action potentials generated to increase. True or False
    False
  76. The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons. True or False
    True
  77. Enkephalins and endorphins are peptides that act like morphine. True or False
    True
  78. A synapse formed between the axon ending of one neuron and the cell body of another neuron is called an axosomatic synapse. True or False
    True
  79. In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier. True or False
    True
  80. Action potentials can be generated by virtually all cells of the body because all cells possess cell membranes. True or False
    False
  81. Voltage is always measured between two points and may be called the potential between these two points. True or False
    True
  82. Neurons that are far away from the center of the neuron pool and that are not easily excited by an incoming stimulus are in the discharge zone. True or False
    False
  83. Acetylcholine is not a biogenic amine. True or False
    True
  84. The two major classes of graded potentials are transmitter potentials and receptor potentials. True or False
    False
  85. A graded potential that is the result of a neurotransmitter released into the synapse between two neurons is called a postsynaptic potential. True or False
    True
  86. Large-diameter nerve fibers conduct impulses much faster than small-diameter fibers. True or False
    True
  87. The nodes of Ranvier are found only on myelinated, peripheral neural processes. True or False
    False
  88. Unipolar neurons have axons structurally divided into peripheral and central processes. True or False
    True
  89. A stimulus traveling toward a synapse appears to open calcium channels at the presynaptic end, which in turn promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles to the axonal membrane. True or False
    True
  90. A positive feedback cycle is the main force in the generation of graded potentials at receptor ends. True or False
    False
  91. If bacteria invaded the CNS tissue, microglia would migrate to the area to engulf and destroy them. True or False
    True

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview