Chemistry

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Anonymous
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218525
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Chemistry
Updated:
2013-05-08 07:46:05
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Unit1 Module1
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OCR alevel chemistry revision
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  1. Describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of relative charge and relative mass
    • Protons - RC = 1.0, RM = +1
    • Neutrons - RC = 1.0 RM = 0
    • Electons - RC = 1/2000 RM = -1
  2. Describe the distribution of mass and charge within an atom
    • Almost all the mass is in the nucleus (p + n)
    • Nucleus is +ve
    • Orbit is -ve
    • So atom is often neutral
  3. Isotopes
    Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons
  4. C-12
    Used as the standard measurement of relative masses
  5. Relative Isotopic Mass
    The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with 1/12 the mass of an atom of C-12
  6. Relative Atomic Mass
    The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of C-12
  7. Amount of Substance
    • The quantity whose unit is the mole
    • "Counting atoms"
  8. The Mole
    The amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the C-12 isotope
  9. Avogadro Constant
    • Number of atoms per mole of the C-12 isotope
    • 6.02*10^23 mol -1
  10. Molar Mass
    • The mass per mole of a substance
    • gmol-1
  11. Empirical Formula
    The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
  12. Molecular Formula
    The actual number o atoms of each element in a molecule
  13. Calculations
    Mass-> N=mass/Mr

    • Gas volume -> n=v(dm3)/24
    • N=v(cm3)/24000

    • Solutions -> n=c*v(dm3)
    • N=c*v(cm3)/1000
  14. Acids
    • Release H+ ions in aqueous solutions Proton donor
    • H2SO4
    • HCl
    • HNO3
  15. Bases
    • Proton acceptor
    • Neutralise acids
    • Metal oxides- MgO, CuO
    • Metal hydroxides- NaOH
    • Ammonia- NH3
    • Readily accept h+ ions from an acid eg: oh- -> h20
  16. Alkali
    • Soluble base that releases OH- ions in aqueous solutions
    • NaOH
    • KOH
    • NH3
    • NAOH+aq-->Na+ +OH-
  17. Salts
    Producers when the H+ ions of an acid is replaced by a metal ion or NH4+
  18. Reactions
    • Acid + carb -> salt + h2o + co2
    • Acid + base -> salt + water
    • Acid + alkali -> salt + water
  19. 1- Anhydrous
    2- Hydrated
    • 1- Substance with no water molecule
    • 2- A crystalline compound containing water molecules
  20. Water of Crystallisation
    Water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound
  21. Oxidation Number
    • Species-oxi.no- examples Uncombined elements-0-C,Na,O2,P4
    • Combined oxygen-(-2)-H2O,CaO
    • Combined hydrogen-1-NH3,H2S
    • Simple ion-charge on ion- Na+=1, Mg2+=2,Cl-=-1
    • Combined fluorine-(-1)-NaF,CaF2,AlF3
  22. Redox Reaction
    • Oxidation- loss of electrons, increase in oxi number
    • Reduction- gain of electrons, decrease in oxi number
    • LEOGER

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