Med Term Test #2

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Med Term Test #2
2013-05-11 00:35:01
Medical Terminology

Medical Terminology: Test #2
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  1. What is Sleep Apnea?
    • a- no
    • pnea - lung/breathing

    The temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep.
  2. What is Atelectasis?
    • ateles - incomplete,
    • ektasis - expansion

    Collapse of alveoli (lung tissue).
  3. What is Hypoxemia?
    hypo- + oxygen, + G. haima, blood

    Low O2 levels in the blood.
  4. What is Pertussis?
    •  per - very (intensive)
    • tussis - cough

    Whooping cough
  5. What is a Spirometry?
    Evaluation of the air capacity/volume of the lungs using a spirometer.
  6. What is an Oximetry?
    Measurement of O2 saturation of arterial blood using an oximeter.

    Calculation of O2 for inhale and exhale efficiency.
  7. What is a Sweat Test used to diagnose?
    This test is used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF).  It is used to check chloride and sodium in sweat.
  8. What is Rhinoplasty?
    Plastic surgery of the nose.
  9. What is Thoracentesis?
    removal of fluid from the chest (pleural cavity) by centesis (surgery) for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  10. What is the Visceral Pleura?
    Pleura that covers the lungs
  11. What is the Parietal Pleura?
    Pleura that lines the inner chest walls and covers the diaphragm
  12. Which cavity contains the lungs?
    The visceral pleura covers the lungs. It provides mucus/hydro to reduce friction.
  13. What is the function of Ventilation?
    It is the exchange of O2 and CO2.
  14. What is the interaction between the Respiratory and Cardiovascular systems?
    The Respiratory system provides assistance to the cardiovascular system by transporting O2 and CO2
  15. What is the direction of movement of MAJOR gases in Lungs?
    O2 in the alveoli is exchanged for CO2 in the blood
  16. What is the structure and function of arteries?
    • They carry blood away from the heart.  Very thick muscular layer - Tunica media (smooth muscle and elastic muscle).
  17.  What is the structure and function of capillaries?
    Are microscopic vessels that join arteries and veins.   The nutrients and O2 are exchanged at the cellular level.
  18. What is the structure and function of veins?
    Veins carry blood to the heart.
  19. What are the functions of the Heart?
    It propels blood to lungs for oxygenation and throughout the rest of the body
  20. What are the two types of Ventricular Pressure?
    ventricular pressure is a measure of blood pressure with in the ventricles of the heart.  It consist of Systolic and Diastolic
  21. What is the Systolic pressure?
    Its the pressure reading in the arteries when the heart beats (or when the muscle contracts).  It is the top number in a blood pressure reading. 
  22. What is Diastolic pressure?
    It measures the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats (when the heart muscle is resting between beats and refilling with blood).  It's the bottom number in a blood pressure reading
  23. What is arteriosclerosis?
    • arterio- arteries
    • sclerosis - hardening

    A condition in which fatty substances form a deposit of plaque on the inner lining of arterial walls.
  24. What is endocarditis?
    • endo - within
    • cardi- heart
    • itis - inflammation

    inflammation of the endocardium
  25. What are varicose veins?
    Occurs when the values in veins of the legs began to fail, which results in a backflow and pooling of blood and fluid
  26. What is an Aneurysm?
    It is a cardiac or arterial dilation (ballooning) usually caused by weakening of the vessel wall.
  27. What are the 3 types of aneurysms?
  28. What is Angina?
    Chest pain; it's related to ischemia of the heart.
  29. What is an Ischemia?
    Decreased O2 in a region.
  30. What is an infarct?
    a localized area of tissue, that is dying or dead because of having been deprived of its blood supply because of embolism or thrombosis.
  31. What is the difference between a thrombus and embolus?
    A thrombus is a clot that forms in and obstructs a blood vessel.  It can also form in one of the chambers of the heart.

    An embolus is a clot that breaks away from its place of origin and carried by the blood.
  32. What is the functions of Plasma Proteins?
    any of the proteins, including albumin, fibrinogen, prothrombin, and the gamma globulins, that constitute about 6% to 7% of the blood plasma in the body. These substances help maintain water balance that affects osmotic pressure, increase blood viscosity, and help maintain blood pressure.

    Also transports molecules, support immunity, and plays an important role in blood clotting.
  33. What is oncotic pressure generation?
    The pressure exerted by plasma proteins on the capillary wall

    The osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution, such as when there is a higher concentration of protein in the plasma on one side of a cell membrane than in the neighboring interstitial fluid. Also called colloid osmotic pressure.
  34. How do plasma proteins transport lipid-soluble substances?
    Carrier proteins are large, water soluble molecules. The y bind to much smaller lipid molecules (which are not soluble in water).  The also bind to hormones and ions. The binding of a lipid-soluble molecule to a carrier protein facilitates its transport in the blood, which consist largely of cater. 
  35. How are plasma proteins involved in clotting?
    The plasma proteins are - albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen.

    Fibrinogen is plasma protein involved in blood clotting.

    Proteins in the blood plasma, called coagulation factors or clotting factors, respond in a complex cascade to form fibrin strands, which strengthen the platelet plug
  36. Where is the highest percentage of O2 and CO2 transported?
    O2 in alveoli exchanged for CO2 in blood.

    • CO2 expelled from lungs .
    • O2 brought into lungs.
  37. Where are adaptive immune cells (T and B cells) matured?
    Humoral Immunity is mediated by B Cells.  These cells protects primarily against extracellular antigens, such as bacteria and viruses that have not yet entered a cell.  They originate and mature in the bone marrow.

    Cellular Immunity is mediated by T cells.  They protect primarily against intracellular antigens such as viruses and cancer cells.  They originate in the bone marrow, but migrate and mature in the thymus.
  38. What is the function of blood?
    • —*Delivers oxygen to cells—*Removes waste materials—
    • *Provides for blood coagulation—
    • *Protects against foreign agents—
    • *Provides for cellular communication
  39. How does the function of blood differ from the function of lymph?
    • —Blood—
    • *Delivers oxygen to cells—
    • *Removes waste materials—
    • *Provides for blood coagulation—
    • *Protects against foreign agents—
    • *Provides for cellular communication

    • —Lymph System—
    • *Maintains fluid balance of the body —*Transports lipids away from organs of digestion
    • *—Filters and removes infectious and unwanted products from blood—
    • *Assists the immune system in body protection
  40. What is innate immunity?
    Also called non-specific immunity, include  anatomical barriers, secretory molecules and cellular components.

    Among the  mechanical anatomical barriers are the skin and internal epithelial layers,  the movement of the intestines and the oscillation of broncho-pulmonary cilia. Associated with these protective surfaces are  chemical and biological agents.
  41. What is passive immunity?
    Immunity in which antibodies or other immune substances formed in one individual are transferred to another individual to provide immediate, temporary immunity.

    • 2 types:
    • Natural Passive immunity - infant receiving antibodies through breast milk
    • Artificial passive immunity - antibodies, antitoxins, or toxoids are transferred or injected into the patient to provide immediate protection.
  42. What is adaptive immunity?
    Immunity produced by the person's own immune system.  It is long lived because memory cells are formed.

    • 2 types
    • natural active immunity - resulting from recovery from a disease
    • artificial active immunity - resulting from an immunization vaccination.
  43. What is anemia?
    a + haima, without blood

    A reduction below normal of the number of erythrocytes, quantity of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in the blood; a symptom of various diseases and disorders.

     Below the normal range of 12 to 16 g/dL for women and 13.5 to 18 g/dL for men or in circulating red blood cells.
  44. What is aplastic (hypoplastic)?
    Unable to form or regenerate tissue. Associated with bone marrow failure. Decreased number of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. Serious form of anemia that may be fatal.
  45. What is hemolytic?
    Referring to the destruction of the cell membranes of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin from the damaged cell.

    Accompanied by jaundice.

    Disorders - erythroblastosis and sickle cell anemia
  46. What is pernicious anemia?
    perniciosus -  destructive

    Tending to cause death or serious injury; deadly. Found mostly in people >50.  It's treated with B12 injections.
  47. What is edema?
    oidema - swelling

    Edema is a condition of abnormally large fluid volume in the circulatory system or in tissues between the body's cells (interstitial spaces).
  48. What is hemophilia?
    haima + philein, to love

    a genetic disorder—usually inherited—of the mechanism of blood clotting. Depending on the degree of the disorder present in an individual, excess bleeding may occur only after specific, predictable events (such as surgery, dental procedures, or injury), or occur spontaneously, with no known initiating event. ---almost exclusively in males.
  49. What is septicemia?
    septikos + haima, blood

    A systemic disease caused by the multiplication of microorganisms in the blood. Also called blood poisoning, septic fever.
  50. What cells are affected by HIV?
    the progressive loss of CD4(+) T cells or helper T cells
  51. What is the criteria for diagnosis of AIDs?
    CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that's specifically targeted and destroyed by HIV. A healthy person's CD4 count can vary from 500 to more than 1,000. Even if a person has no symptoms, HIV infection progresses to AIDS when his or her CD4 count becomes less than 200.
  52. What is the difference between autologous and homologous transfusion?
     Homologous blood transfusion is the infusion of blood or blood components that have been collected from the general public.

    An autologous blood transfusion is the pre-collection and subsequent infusion of a patient's own blood.
  53. What is the difference between autologous and homologous transplant?
    Autologous BMT the patient's own bone marrow is used. 

    In allogeneic (homologous) bone marrow transplantation (BMT), healthy bone marrow is taken from a donor who has a very similar tissue type to the recipient's--usually a brother or sister.
  54. What is a long bone?
    • —longer than they are wide.
    • Examples are the legs, arms, and fingers.

  55. What is a short bone?
    • cube shaped; consist of spongy bone.
    • Example is bones of the ankles, wrists, and toes.

  56. What is a flat bone?
    • plate-like, have broad surfaces
    • Examples of flat bones include bones of the skull, shoulder blades, and sternum.

  57. What is a sesamoid bone?
    • —roundish, shaped like a sesame seed
    • An example is the patella.

  58. What is an irregular bone?
    • —Irregular - varied shapes
    • Examples of irregular bones include vertebrae and the bones of the middle ear.
  59. What is the periosteum of the long bone?
    —outer tough fibrous connective tissue covering, continuous with tendons and ligaments. Has blood vessels that penetrate the bone.
  60. Picture of bone
  61. What is the difference between the epiphysis and diaphysis of the long bone?
    ——Epiphysis - broad ends of a long bone that articulate with other bones, consist of spongy bone with a thin outer layer of compact bone.

    Diaphysis - Shaft, walls consist of compact bone lined with endosteum (fine connective tissue layer)
  62. What is the difference between compact and spongy bone?
    compact bone is dense bone in which the bony matrix is solidly filled with organic ground substance and inorganic salts, leaving only tiny spaces (lacunae) that contain the osteocytes, or bone cells. Compact bone makes up 80 percent of the human skeleton; It is the outer layer of bone

    the remainder is cancellous bone, which has a sponge-like appearance with numerous large spaces and is found in the marrow space (medullary cavity) of a bone. It contains red marrow. It is located in the interior of the bone. It makes up 20 % of the human skeleton
  63. What is articular cartilage?
    • —Articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of the epiphyses, reduces friction between bones at joints.

    • 1. Compact Bone
    • 2. Spongy Bone
  64. What is the axial skeletal system?
    —Consists of 80 bones making up the skull, rib cage and vertebral column.—

    • It carries out the following functions:—
    •     *Support and protection for the organs within the dorsal and ventral body cavities. —     *Provides the framework for the attachment of muscles that: adjust the positions of the head, neck and trunk.—
    •       *Perform respiratory movements. Anchor and stabilize the appendicular bones.
  65. What is the Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle?
    The pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapula. The pelvic girdle is formed by the two coxal bones which are fused anteriorly.

    Primary function of the pectoral girdle is to attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and provide attachments for muscles that aid upper limb movements.
  66. What is the appendicular skeletal system?
    —Consists of 126 bones making up the appendages and girdles that connect appendages to the body. —

    The appendicular skeleton enables the body to move.
  67. What are the functions of the Skeletal System?
    • —1. Provide Movement for
    • organs and body parts
    • 2. Contributes to Posture
    • 3. Produces body Heat
    • 4. Act as a Protective covering for internal organs
  68. Explain the different type of bone fractures?
    Closed - A bone fracture that causes little or no damage to the surrounding soft tissues. Also called simple fracture.

    Open - one in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissue communicates with the outside of the body; this must be considered a surgical emergency.  Called also compound fracture.

    Comminuted -one in which the bone is splintered or crushed, with three or more fragments.
  69. Pictures of Bone Fractures....
  70. What is Arthritis?
    • arthron - joint
    • itis - inflammation

    Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes.
  71. What is Osteoporosis?
    Literally means "porous bones." It occurs when bones lose an excessive amount of their protein and mineral content, particularly calcium.
  72. What is Gout?
    A form of acute arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in the joints. 

    Results from a high levels of uric acid in the blood, needle-like urate crystals gradually accumulate in the joints.
  73. What is Hemarthrosis?
    • haima - blood
    • arthron - joint

    Accumulation of blood in a joint or joint cavity.