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Population aging is inevitable.
- No solutions, but immigration may help.
- Labor migration encouragement
Gender equity is essential
More old and less young means less taxes to pay for old.
Low fertility is the result of conflicting gender equity.
Fertility falls because men and women don't want kids.
Low fertility leads to changes in society.
Low fertility will persist unless gender equity within family oriented institutions rise.
Conservative governments are painting old policies in bad light.
Retrenchment advocates must persuade electorate to believe that reform is worth loss in benefits.
Special interest groups dominate welfare policies.
Four key variables that characterize welfare states
- 1. Modes of access to benefits
- 2. Benefit of structure (service v. cash)
- 3. Financing mechanism
- 4. Actors who manage the system
Investment in infrastructure, education, and training most effective distribution of welfare.
Encourage older workers to delay retirement.
Redefine the mix of work and leisure across a lifetime.
Socialize the cost associated with children.
Social investment state. Expand government in education, employment and economic opportunity, and encourage strong communities.
Invest in social and human capitol. Children important.
Universal childcare trust fund - some money as child but can access as an adult.
- 2 dilemmas.
- Fighting exploitation v. fighting exclusion.
- Economic capacity v. Political capacity
Radical rethinking needed to implement minimum income guarantee.