Card Set Information

2013-05-08 12:39:57

for physio test on sleep and hormones
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  1. What is Rem sleep
    Atonia: no tone; codition of complete muscle inactivity produced by the inahibiton of motor neurons
  2. What is dreaming
    • psychoanalytic reading
    • activation synthisis
    • Evolutionary Hypothesis
  3. What is physcoanalytic reading
    • -sigmund Freud
    • -Dreams are symbolic and fullfilment of unconcious wishes
    • -Manifest content
    • - Latent content
  4. What is Manifest content
    - loosly connected series of bizarre images and actions
  5. What is Latent Content
    true meaning of dream
  6. What is Activation synthesis
    • -the cortex is bombarded with signals from the breainstem, producing the pattern of waking EEG
    • -cortex genertates images, actions and emotions from personal memory stores
    • - dreams are personal no meaning
  7. What is Evolutionary Hypothesis
    • Annttio
    • Dreams are highly orgainized and biased toward threatening images
    • Dreams are biologically and important bc they lead to enhanced performance
  8. What is sleep
    • Passive
    • Biological Adaption
    • BRAC - basic rest activity cycle
    • Restorative process
  9. What is passive Sleep process
    • Early explanation that sleep is a passive process that takes place as a result of a decrease in sensory stimulation
    • Does not account for the complexity of sleep
    • No direct evidence - sensory deprivation research has shown that people actaully sleep less, not more when placed in isolated enviorments
  10. What is Sleep - Biological Adaptation
    • Sleep is energy-conserving strategy
    • Animals that are predators sleep morer than animlas on prey
    • Nocturnal or diurnal animals will sleep during those times in which they cannot travel
  11. What is BRAC sleep
    • Reccuring cycle of temporal packets
    • 90 min periods in human
    • fundamental that it cannot be turned off even at night
    • body is paralyized during REM sleep
  12. What is Restorative Process (sleep)
    • Possible sleep hypothsis
    • sleep depriviation studies
    • micro sleep
  13. What is the restorative process - Possible hypothesis
    • Chemical events that provide energy to cells may be reduced during waking and are replinshed during sleep
    • Fatigue and alertness may be simply be aspects of the circadian rhythms and nothing to do with wear and tear on the body
  14. What is the restorative process - Sleep deprivation studies
    lead to decreased cognitive performance, especially on boring tasks or when the task requires sustained attention
  15. What is restorative process - micro sleep
    • brief period of sleep lasting a second or so
    • confounding factor in cognitive performance following sleep deprivation
  16. What is REM rebound
    Spend more time in REM sleep in the first available sleep session
  17. What is memory storage
    • sleep plays a role in solidifying and organizing events in memory
    • place cell : hippocampal neuron that fires
  18. Who is Wilson and McNaughton
    • 1994
    • groups of place cell that fired diromg a fppd searching task - samse thing fired during sleep
    • ¬†Importance if NREM sleep for memory storage
  19. Who is Maquet and Colleagues
    • 2000
    • used to PET imaging to record a brain activity while human subjects performed during a serial reaction time task
    • PET imaging during subsequant sleep revealed tha the same brain regions that were active during the task were also during REM sleep
    • REM sleep is strengthened the memory task
  20. what is Reticular activating system
    • assocaited with sleep-wake behavior and behavioral arrousal
    • often called the reticular formation
    • stimulation of the RAS produces a waking EEG, damage to it produces a slow wave EEG
  21. What is Large Reticulum
    mixture of cell nuclei and nerve fibers that run throught the center of the brain stem
  22. What is a Coma
    • prolonged states of unconsciouness resembling sleep
    • can result from brain damage ( RAS Damage)
  23. What is Waking behavior - Basal Forebain
    contains cholinergic cells that secrete acetylcholine onto neocortical neurons that stimulate a waking EEG (beta) rhythm
  24. What is sleep disorders
    • insomnia
    • narcolepsy
    • sleep apnea
    • sleep paralysis
    • cataplexy
    • hypnogogic hallucination
  25. What is sleep Disorder - INSOMNIA
    disorder of slow wave sleep resulting in prolonged inability to sleep
  26. What is sleep Disorder - NARCOLEPSY
    slow wave sleep disorder which a person uncontrollabilty falls asleep at inappororaite times; may be due to mutations in the gene that produces hypocrite orexin peptide
  27. What is sleep disorder Sleep APnea
    inability to breath during sleep
  28. What is sleep disorder - SLEEP PARALYSIS
    inability to move during sleep owing to the brains inhibition of motor neurons
  29. What is sleep disorder - CATAPLEXY
    form of narcolepsy linked to strong emotional stimulation in which an animal loses all muscle activity or tone
  30. What is sleep disorder - HYPNOGOGIC HALLUCINATION
    dreamlike event at the beginning of sleep or while a person is in a state of CATAPLEXY
  31. What is Emotion
    cognitve interpretation of subjective feelings
  32. What is Motivation
    behavior that seems purposeful and goal directed
  33. What is sensory deprivation
    • expermental setup in which a subject is allowed only restricted sensory input; subjects generally have a low tolerance for deprivation
    • brain has inherent need for stimulation
    • without stimulation = very distresssed
  34. What is Drives
    hypothical state of arousal that motivates an organism to engage in particauler behavior
  35. What is Flush Model
    • once a behavior is started, it will continue until all the enery in its reservior is gone
    • there are separate stores of energy for different behaviors
  36. what is the relationshipbetween beahvioral changes in hormones and cellular activity
    behavioral change correlates with changes in hormones and cellular activity
  37. What is innate releasing mechanism
    • the brain must have a set of norms against which it can match stimuli so as to trigger an appropriate response
    • IRM's prewired into the breain but modified by experiences
    • detects specific sensory stimuli and directs an organism to take particular action
  38. What is Hypothalamus - Homeostatic Mechanisms
    process that maintains critical body functions within a narrow, fixed ranged
  39. What is Hypothalamus - regulatory behaviors
    • behavior motivated to meet the survival needs of the animal
    • controlled by homeostatic mechanisms
    • body temp
  40. What is Hypothalamus - Nonregulatory behaviors
    • behaviors unnecessary to meet the basic survial needs of the animal
    • not controlled by homeostatic mechanisms
    • most involve in frontal lobes more than hypothalamus
    • aggression
  41. what is medial forebrain bundle
    • Tract that connects structures in the brainstem with various parts of the limbic system
    • Forms of activiting projections form the breainstem to the basal ganglia nad frontal cortex
    • dopamine-containing fibers are involved in a reward and therefore contribute to maby motivated behaviors
  42. what is pituitary gland
    • posterior
    • anterior
    • releasing hormones
  43. What is posterior pituitary
    • neural tissue
    • continuation of hypothalamus
  44. what is the anterior pituitary
    • glandular tissue
    • synthesizes various hormones
  45. What is releasing hormones ( pituitary gland)
    peptides that a released by the hypothalamus and act to increase or decrease the realease of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland
  46. What is the factors that control hypothalamic hormone-related activity
    • feedback loops
    • neural control
    • experiental responses
  47. What is the factors that control hypothalamic hormone-related activity - FEEDBACK LOOPS
    control the amount of hormone that is released
  48. What is the factors that control hypothalamic hormone-related activity - NEURAL CONTROL
    • other brain regions that influence hormane release
    • example - limbic, fortonal lobes
  49. What is the factors that control hypothalamic hormone-related activity - Experiential Responses
    experiences can alter the structure and function of hypothalamic neurons
  50. What is the limbic system
    • hippocampus
    • cingulate gyrus
    • amygdala
  51. What is the limbic System - Hippocampus
    • distinctive three-layer subcortical structure of the limbic system lying in the medial temporal region of the temporal lobes
    • play a role in species specific behaviors, memory and spatial navigation
    • vunerable to the effects of stress
  52. what is the limbic system Cingulate gyrus
    • coordinates senory input with emotions
    • emotional respones to pain
    • regulates aggressive behavior
  53. What is the limbic system Amygdala
    • almond shaped collection of the nuclei located within the limbic sustem
    • plays a role with emotional and species specific behaviors
    • multimodal- many neurons respond to more than one sensory modality
  54. What is the prefrontal cortex
    dorsolateral/inferior - involved in specifying the goals towards which movement should be made
  55. What is the James-Lange theory
    • physiological changes produced by the autonomic nervous system come first - interputs them as an emotion
    • evidence - itensity of emotions in individuals with spinal cord damage depends on level at which the spinal cord wias severed
  56. What is he Kluver Bucy syndrome
    behavioral syndrome, characterized especially by hypersexuality, that results from bilateral injury to temporal lobe
  57. What is the damge to prefrontal cortex
    • serve effects on social and emotional behavior
    • inability to experience and express their own emotions
    • recognize the emotional expressions of others
    • inability to plan nad organize - poor decsion making
  58. What is the hypothamlamus and control of eating
    • Aphagia
    • Hyperphagia
  59. What is the hypothamlamus and control of eating - APHAGIA
    • failure to eat
    • may by due to unwillingness to ear or to motor difficulties - espically with swallowing
    • observed following lesions to the lateral hypothalamus
  60. What is the hypothamlamus and control of eating - Hyperphagia
    • disorder in which an animal over eats
    • leading to significant weight gain
    • observed during follwoing lesions to the ventromedial hypothalamus or the paraventricular nuclues
  61. What is the effects of sex hormones on the brain - sex related differences in hypothalamus
    • compared with heterosexual females and hertrosexual males
    • preoptic area contains twcie as many neurons
    • bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is 2.5 larger
    • INAH3 region is 2 times larger
  62. What are the hormones that effect alomst every neuron in the breain
    Hormones - Neurons - Genes - Proteins
  63. What are the classes of hormones
    • steriod hormone
    • peptide hormone
    • homeostatic hormones
    • gonadal hormones
    • glucocorticoids
  64. What are the classes of hormones - Steriod Hormone
    • fat soluble chemical messenger synthesised from cholestrol
    • examples - Gondal hormones(sex) thyriod
  65. What are the classes of hormones - peptide hormones
    • chemcial messenger sysnthized by cellular DNA that acts to affect the tartet cells physiology
    • example - isulin, growth hormone
  66. What are the classes of hormones - Gonadal Hormones
    • control reproductive fuctions
    • sexual developement and behavior
  67. What are the classes of hormones - homeostatic hormones
    maintain a state of internal metabolic balance and regualtion of physiological system
  68. What are the classes of hormones - Glucocorticiods
    secreted in times of stress important in protein and carb metabolism