Mr. G Regents Review 1

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Mr. G Regents Review 1
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2013-05-28 13:24:19
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Global History Review
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  1. Otto von Bismarck
    "Iron Chancellor" of Prussia and Germany; used nationalism, "Real Politik"  and policy of Blood and Iron to unify Germany
  2. 95 Theses
    • list of complaints compiled by Martin Luther
    • against Catholic Church, sparked the Protestant Reformation
  3. Absolute monarchy
    • Government where king or monarch has all
    • power; same as an autocrat and similar to dictator
  4. African Diaspora
    Mass, forced movement of Africans due to slavery
  5. African National Congress
    Nationalist movement in South Africa created to end European influence and apartheid; led by Nelson Mandela
  6. Ahimsa
    Hindu belief in nonviolence (India)
  7. Akbar the Great
    absolute ruler of Mongol India that allowed people to openly practice religions
  8. Amazon Basin
    region of South America covered with dense tropical growth and threatened by deforestation
  9. Amritsar Massacre
    an incident where British troops opened fire on unarmed Indian protestors, killing and wounding over 1,000 Indian's (India's independence movement)
  10. Andes Mountains
    South American mountain range running the entire length of the continent; formed a barrier to cultural diffusion
  11. Animism
    belief system based on worship of spirits and belief that their are spirits in all things living and not; often compared to Shintoism
  12. Anthropologist
    Historical scholar that studies every aspect of a society's culture
  13. Anti-Semitism
    Hatred or prejudice against Jews
  14. Apartheid
    Policy of racial segregation in South Africa
  15. Appeasement
    Policy of giving into the demands of an aggressor to keep peace (Hitler, pre-WWII)
  16. Arab-Israeli Conflict 
    Series of wars and tensions in the Middle East stemming from the creation of Israel in 1948
  17. Yassir Arafat
    leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) that used terrorism to attempt to win homeland for Palestinians
  18. Archaeologist
    A scholar who studies the artifacts of a people to understand their existence as a culture
  19. Armenian Massacre
    Slaughter of 1 Million Christian Armenians by Muslim Turks of the Ottoman Empire in 1895; example of genocide and human rights violation
  20. Kemal Ataturk
    Leader of Turkey that focused on modernizing the country through western thought, technology, and ideology; comparable to Shah Reza Pahlavi
  21. Axis Powers 
    WWII alliance comprised of Germany, Japan, and Italy
  22. Allied Powers
    WWII alliance comprised of U.S. Britain, France, USSR
  23. Azerbaijan
    New republic of former USSR; continues to deal with religious and ethnic conflict
  24. Aztecs
    Mesoamerican civilization developed near Mexico known for legal system, engineering techniques, floating gardens, and calendar system
  25. Balfour Declaration
    promise by Britain in 1917 that Jews would have a homeland in Palestine
  26. Balkans/Balkan Peninsula
    "Powder keg" of WWI; comprised of Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia
  27. Ibn Battuta
    Moroccan traveler who kept journal of his visits to Africa, China, Southeast Asia, and India; his travels spurred cultural diffusion and trade
  28. Berlin Conference of 1884
    meeting of European powers to decide how to divide Africa into colonies (imperialism)
  29. Black Death
    Plague that devastated Europe in 1300s, killing a third of population; spread via trade; created a shortage of workers
  30. Black Shirts
    Militant combat squads of Benito Mussolini in Italy
  31. Blitzkrieg
    Lightning war used by Germany in WWII
  32. Blood and Iron
    Policy of force and persuasion used by Otto von Bismarck of Prussia to unify German states into Germany
  33. Bloody Sunday
    Russia, 1905; palace guards loyal to czar opened fire on protesting workers and peasants; further unrest led to the creation of Russian parliament known as the Duma and civil liberties
  34. Simon Bolivar
    known as "The Liberator" and helped several Latin American countries gain independence from European control
  35. Bolshevik Revolution
    Communist uprising led by Vladimir Lenin that overthrew czar of Russia and installed communist government in Russia, creating the Soviet Union
  36. Napoleon Bonaparte
    general and emperor of France; ended revolution and violence through Napoleonic Code; famous for failed invasion of Russia
  37. Bourgeoisie
    Upper and middle class in society; mentioned in Communist Manifesto as the group that needs to be overthrown by proletariat
  38. Boxer Rebellion/Uprising
    anti-foreign movement in China; compared to Sepoy Rebellion in India
  39. Bubonic Plague
    Massive sickness that swept through Asia and Europe killing a third of Europe; spread via trade and caused labor shortages
  40. Buddhism
    Religion founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama, based on Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path and achieving nirvana or enlightenment
  41. Bushido
    Code of conduct of samurai in feudal Japan; compared to chivalry of European knights in feudal Europe
  42. Byzantine Empire
    after the fall of Rome, was the Eastern half of the former Roman Empire, famous for leader Justinian, architecture of Hagia Sophia and Hippodrome
  43. John Calvin
    a leader of the Protestant Reformation, created the idea of predestination or that God chooses who will achieve salvation before birth.
  44. Fidel Castro
    led communist revolution of Cuba in 1959 and later aligned himself with USSR during Cuban Missile Crisis; held support of peasants
  45. Camillio Cavour
    leader of Italian unification movement, used nationalism to achieve unification, compared to Otto von Bismarck
  46. Capitalism
    economic system focused on private ownership of means of production, competition and profit motivation; used by United States
  47. Caste system
    rigid social class system in India stemming from Hinduism; encourages discrimination; based on birth and determines ones occupation
  48. chivalry
    code of conduct for medieval knights in feudal Europe; similar to bushido of samurai in feudal Japan
  49. Winston Churchill
    British Prime Minister during World War II; coined the idea of "Iron Curtain" following WWII
  50. civil disobedience
    refusal to obey unjust law (Gandhi, against British; Salt March)
  51. Cold War
    Tension and hostility between U.S. and USSR following WWII through late 1980s
  52. Communism
    economic system focused on government/community ownership of the means of production; also known as Marxism due to creator, Karl Marx
  53. collectivism
    system of combining farm output used in communist states such as the USSR and China; terrible failures (Ukrainian Famine/Genocide)
  54. collective security
    a system of alliances focusing on coordinating global peacekeeping; NATO
  55. colonialism
    taking of other lands by a stronger nation for its economic/military use; natural resources and raw materials; directly tied to imperialism
  56. Columbian Exchange
    The movement of goods, people, and diseases as a result of exploration and colonization of the New World; 1500s-1700s
  57. command economy
    economic system where government officials set economic goals and policies
  58. Commercial Revolution
    a period after the Renaissance in which capitalist economies grew due to increases in trade, exploration, and colonization
  59. The Communist Manifesto
    title of book on socialism published in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which focuses on lower classes overthrowing the rich to gain equality
  60. Confucianism
    Chinese philosophy centered around social order based on relationships that called for respect for elders, authority, and the use of civil service exams
  61. Coup de tat
    military overthrow of a government
  62. Congress of Vienna
    assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together and reestablish balance of power
  63. Constantinople
    capital city of the Byzantine Empire
  64. Containment
    U.S. strategy of keeping communism within its existing boundaries and preventing its further expansion, particularly in Southeast Asia
  65. continental system
    blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britain economically by closing European ports to British goods
  66. Creole
    in the Spanish-American colonies; person of Spanish descent born in American colonies
  67. Crusades
    a series of holy wars fought between Christians and Muslims over the Jerusalem; economic impact after Crusades included an increase in trade between Europe and Middle East
  68. Cuban Missile Crisis
    A 13 day crisis in Oct, 1962 in which the US demanded the USSR to remove nuclear missiles they placed in Cuba; nuclear war loomed between Cold War powers
  69. Cuban Revolution
    Communist overthrow of dictator Batista by Fidel Castro in 1959; Castro had support of peasants
  70. Cultural Revolution
    A Chinese communist program to purge China of "anti-revolutionaries" in 1960s; political enemies of Mao imprisoned or killed
  71. Daimyo
    warrior class in feudal japan
  72. Darfur
    region in western Sudan where ethnic conflict threatened to lead to genocide; human rights violations
  73. F.W. de Klerk
    South African president who freed Nelson Mandela and helped to end policy of apartheid
  74. D-Day
    June 6, 1945 allied invasion of Nazi-occupied France; forced Germany to fight on multiple fronts
  75. Deccan Plateau
    Plateau region in Southern India
  76. Declaration of the Rights of Man
    document stemming from the French Revolution that guaranteed certain rights for French citizens; ideas therein stemmed from Enlightenment
  77. Deforestation
    planned destruction of rainforest areas by bulldozing and fire in order to provide roads, grazing, and farm land
  78. Detente
    Lessening of tensions and arms limitations between USSR and U.S. during the 1970s
  79. Deng Xiaoping
    Chinese leader that improved China's economy through the Four Modernizations
  80. desertification
    enlargement of desert due to overgrazing and drought
  81. divine right
    belief that laws and power of monarch comes from God in Western Europe; similar to Mandate of Heaven in China
  82. domino theory
    belief that a communist victory in South Vietnam would cause noncommunist governments in Southeast Asia to fall to communism, like dominoes
  83. Dunkirk
    City in Northern France and the site of a great evacuation of troops during WWII
  84. East Germany
    formed after WWII; under communist control of Soviet Union
  85. Eastern Orthodox Church
    • Reflecting the east-west split in the Roman
    • Empire, the Eastern Church, based in Constantinople, gradually separated from
    • Roman based western Christianity. Russia was Christianized by the Eastern
    • Church in the 10th century, and as the state religion it provided a
    • cultural identity closely linked with the Byzantine Empire
  86. Economist
    person who studies how society organizes its resources for production and distribution
  87. Encomienda system
    system of forced labor used in Latin American colonies; exploitation of natives
  88. English Bill of Rights
    • series of acts passed by English Parliament in
    • 1689 that limited the power of the monarchy and ensured the superiority of
    • Parliament
  89. Epic of Gilgamesh
    ancient piece of literature from Mesopotamia that gives historians an idea of life during the rise of Mesopotamian society
  90. Estates General
    legislative body of France
  91. Ethnic cleansing
    murder against specific group of people; similar to genocide; Slobodan Milosevic
  92. Euphrates River
    opposite the Tigris River, these two of bodies of water make up the "Fertile Crescent" of Mesopotamia
  93. Euro
    common currency used by member nations of the European Union
  94. European Union
    an international organization made up of over two dozen European nations, with a common currency, policies, and laws
  95. Fascism
    system of government marked by strict social and economic control by a dictator; Hitler of Germany, Mussolini of Italy
  96. Fertile Crescent
    region of rich farmland in the Middle East between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Mesopotamia
  97. Feudalism
    system of social and political rule in Western Europe during the Middle Ages where serfs worked the land in exchange for protection; land=power
  98. filial piety
    Respect for parents/elders under Confucianism
  99. Five Relationships
    guiding relationships of Confucianism where one group sets example for a lesser group; ruler to subject, parent to child
  100. five year plans
    unrealistic agricultural and industrial goals set by Stalin; influenced the Great Leap Forward of Mao
  101. Four Modernizations
    program for economic improvement set up by Deng Xiaoping in China
  102. Franco-Prussian War
    1870 war between France and Prussia; won by Prussia; helped to unify the German states
  103. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; assassinated by Serbian terrorist, provided the spark for World War I
  104. French Revolution
    revolution by the third estate of France due to inequality in the tax structure and greed of the first and second Estates; overthrew the monarchy and marked by the violent Reign of Terror
  105. Galileo Galilei
    Scientist that shared Copernicus' theory that the Earth revolved around the sun which was known as the heliocentric model
  106. Mohandas Gandhi
    leader of India's nationalist independence movement against Great Britain; used acts of civil disobedience such as the Salt March and boycotts to achieve goals
  107. Ganges River
    river in India sacred to Hindu's
  108. Gaza Strip
    area in the Middle East which has been fought over by Israeli's and Palestinian's; one of the Occupied Territories
  109. genocide
    the systematic murder of a specific group of people such as the Holocaust, Cambodian Genocide, Rwandan Genocide, and Ottoman slaughter of Armenian's
  110. Gestapo
    secret police force of Hitler in Nazi Germany
  111. glasnost
    policy of openness in Russia that encouraged freedom of speech in government, developed by Mikhail Gorbachev
  112. global warming
    warming of Earth and its atmosphere due in part to burning of fossil fuels
  113. globalization
    interdependence of the world's economies
  114. Glorious Revolution
    Bloodless revolution which dethroned James II of England and Parliament asked William and Mary to be co-rulers of England; led to parliamentary democracy of England
  115. Golan Heights
    mountainous area controlled by Syria until 1967 Arab-Israeli War; Israel and UN currently occupy area; one of the Occupied Territories
  116. Gold and Salt Trade
    Two main products traded by West African Kingdoms Mali, Songhai, and Ghana; led to these nations prosperity
  117. Golden Age
    high point of any culture marked by great advances in art, literature, mathematics, or technology; Gupta Empire, Athens, Tang/Song Dynasties
  118. Mikhail Gorbachev
    leader of USSR from 1985 until its collapse; he implemented policies that brought openness in government and free market principles to economy; led to collapse of USSR
  119. Gothic style
    type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterizes by flying buttresses
  120. Grand Canal
    900 mile long canal in easter China; provided transportation for goods and people
  121. Great Leap Forward
    Chinese communist program from 1958-60 to boost farm and industrial production that failed miserably under Mao; similar to five year plans of USSR
  122. Great Rift Valley
    area of Africa where Louis and Mary Leakey found evidence of the first humans that existed on Earth
  123. Great Wall of China
    a 1500 mile long fortification built during the Qin Dynasty in the year 200 BC and finished by the Ming Dynasty in 1300 AD
  124. Green Revolution
    gime period in the 1960s where new farming methods and techniques were used to improve farming production
  125. Guild
    Association of merchants and artisans that cooperated in fixing prices, uphold standards of their trade, and protect their economic interests
  126. Gulag
    system of forced labor camps in which millions of political prisoners were held under Joseph Stalin
  127. Gupta Empire
    Indian empire known for golden age of art, literature, mathematics--> concept of zero, decimal system
  128. Johannes Gutenberg
    inventor of the printing press during the Renaissance; helped to spread the teachings of Martin Luther and the ideas of the Protestant Reformation
  129. Hagia Sophia
    structure built in Constantinople that has been church, mosque, and museum; displayed the architectural achievements of Byzantine Empire
  130. Han Dynasty
    high point of ancient China's power, culture, and prosperity in which art, literature, and science flourished; strong central government promoted political unity by supporting Confucian ideas
  131. Heliocentric Model
    scientific belief held by Copernicus and Galileo that the sun is the center of the universe
  132. Hellenistic Culture
    Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Indian, and Persian cultures due to the conquests of Alexander the Great
  133. Hinduism
    Indian religion with belief in karma, dharma, reincarnation, and caste system
  134. Adolf Hitler
    dictator of Nazi Germany 1933-45; responsible for beginning WWII and Holocaust; controlled all aspects of citizens lives through Gestapo and propaganda campaign
  135. Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    Japanese cities destroyed by atomic bombs dropped by U.S.; ended WWII
  136. Thomas Hobbes
    Enlightenment philosopher that believed that men were brutish and selfish and needed an absolute monarch to control them; opposite view of John Locke
  137. Ho Chi Minh
    leader of communist Vietnam; used guerrilla warfare to defeat enemies
  138. Holocaust
    systematic genocide of 12 million people; human rights violations; prompted Nuremburg Trials which convicted Nazi's of war crimes
  139. Horn of Africa
    a peninsula of northeastern Africa consisting of Somalia, Djibouti, and Eritrea; struggling with massive poverty
  140. Humanism
    intellectual and cultural movement sparked during the Renaissance that stemmed from study of classical Greek literature and culture
  141. Shi Huangdi
    king of Qin China known for terra cotta warriors and legalism--> strict code of law
  142. Saddam Hussein
    dictator of Iraq who committed ethnic cleansing against Kurds and led oppressive regime
  143. Hutu
    Majority ethnic group of Rwanda; responsible for murdering 800,000 Tutsi's and moderate Hutu's
  144. Imperialism
    policy of expanding ones empire and controlling economic, social, and political life of a weaker country (European control of Africa, India, China)
  145. Incas
    South American civilization known for achievements in architecture, medicine, government, mathematics, and road system
  146. Indochina
    peninsula of Southeast Asia consisting of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
  147. Indus River
    river in western India; one of the rivers that benefitted early Indians by providing rich soil for farming
  148. Industrial Revolution
    time period beginning in Great Britain where production was moved from home to factories, from hand to machine
  149. Inquisition
    secret church courts set up to try those accused of heresy
  150. Iranian/Islamic Revolution
    1979; overthrow of Shah Reza Pahlavi by fundamentalist Muslim leader Ayatollah Khomeini; in response to oppressive regime that aimed at modernizing and westernizing Iran
  151. Irish Potato Famine
    1840s loss of potato crop in Ireland in which millions died and migrated due to lack of food
  152. Iron Curtain
    imaginary boundary first noted by Winston Churchill that separated the Eastern communist nations in Europe from the Western democratic countries
  153. Irregular coastline
    the edge of land along an ocean that has many inlets and harbors; good for trade and development (Britain during Industrial Revolution)
  154. Irrigation
    techniques used in farming to provide water to fields from a distant area; ditches and canals are examples of irrigation process
  155. Italian city-states
    towns in which acted as trade centers during Middle Ages and Renaissance (ex. Venice and Genoa)
  156. Jacobin
    member of radical political club during the French Revolution; responsible for Reign of Terror and use of guillotine
  157. Kim Jong Il
    military communist dictator of North Korea; encouraged build up of nuclear weaponry
  158. Judaism
    world's first monotheistic religion based on Old Testament and belief in one God and Ten Commandments; influenced Christianity and Islam
  159. Justinian's Code
    collection of written laws introduced by Byzantine emperor Justinian; comparable to Hammurabi's Code of Babylon and 12 Tables of Romans
  160. Kaiser
    German emperor
  161. Jomo Kenyatta
    leader of Kenyan independence movement against Great Britain; served as Kenya's first president; led nationalist movement
  162. Genghis Khan
    Mongol conqueror that spread Mongol influence to Iran, China, and Russia
  163. Ayatollah Khomeini
    Muslim cleric that led the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran
  164. Khmer Rouge
    Cambodian communist guerrillas that committed genocide in Cambodia in 1975; human rights violations
  165. Kiev
    first major city in western Russia
  166. "Killing Fields"
    number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people killed and buried by Khmer Rouge during genocide of 1975
  167. Korean War
    Cold War conflict fought between communist North and noncommunist South; ended with UN armistice; since South Korea has flourished while North Korea struggles to survive
  168. Kristallnacht
    "Night of Broken Glass" attacks by Nazi's against Jewish homes, property, and synagogues
  169. Nikita Krushchev
    leader of USSR following death of Stalin; contributed to Cold War through participation in Cuban Missile Crisis
  170. Laissez-faire
    No government intervention in economic policy or business activity; tied to capitalism/free market
  171. League of Nations
    international organization created following WWI that failed due to lack of military power
  172. Legalism
    strict set of laws used by Shi Huangdi of Qin China
  173. Vladimir Lenin
    leader of Bolshevik/Russian Revolution and made Russia a communist power
  174. John Locke
    Enlightenment philosopher who believed in citizens rights, fair government, and rights to life, liberty, property
  175. Long March
    epic march in which group of Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong retreated from Nationalist forces for 6,000 miles
  176. Louis XIV (14th)
    absolute monarch of France who proclaimed divine right, built palace at Versailles, and called himself the "Sun King"
  177. Louis XVI (16th)
    last king of France who was executed during French Revolution
  178. Toussaint L'Ouverture
    former slave that successfully led Haitian Revolution, gaining independence for Haiti
  179. Martin Luther
    German monk who sparked the Protestant Reformation by listing church corruption in 95 Theses
  180. Niccolo Machiavelli
    Italian political theorist that authored The Prince, proposing that a ruler must be harsh in order to maintain order, believing that "the ends justify the means"
  181. Magna Carta
    Great Charter; signed by King John of England in 1215; limited royal power and gave rights to English freemen; roots of democracy in England
  182. Thomas Malthus
    1700s English economist who argued that the population would continue to grow out of control unless unchecked by war, disease, or famine
  183. Mandate of Heaven
    the authority to rule given to Chinese emperors by God; akin to divine right of European monarchs
  184. Nelson Mandela
    first black president of South Africa whose leadership of independence movement ended apartheid in South Africa
  185. Mansa Musa
    ruler of Mali that strengthened his empire through conversion to Islam and pilgrimage to Mecca
  186. market economy
    capitalist economic system based on supply and demand
  187. Marshall Plan
    a plan of economic assistance and recovery for Western Europe following WWII; strengthened democracy and fought communism
  188. Karl Marx
    author of The Communist Manifesto, creator of communism; Marxism
  189. means of production
    the elements of production, transportation, and delivering goods (factories, mines, trains, natural resources)
  190. Mecca
    the holiest place of the Islamic faith; birthplace of Mohammed; Muslim's must make pilgrimage to Mecca as a part of their faith
  191. Meiji Restoration
    Japan; the reign of emperor Meiji that was marked by rapid modernization and industrialization
  192. Mercantilism
    policy of gaining other territory for obtaining raw materials and natural resources; tied to capitalism and Commercial Revolution
  193. Mesoamerica
    region of North America, including Mexico and Central America, in which civilizations with common cultural features developed before European arrival; Mayans, Aztecs, Incas
  194. Mestizo
    person in Spanish colony who was of Native American and Spanish descent
  195. Mexican Revolution
    uprising in 1910 removing Porfirio Diaz from power; led by Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa
  196. Slobodan Milosevic
    Serbian president of Yugoslavia who used ethnic cleansing against Muslims in former Yugoslavia; committed crimes against humanity
  197. monotheism
    belief in only one God (Judaism, Christianity, Islam)
  198. Benito Mussolini
    fascist dictator of Italy during WWII
  199. nationalism
    pride in or excessive devotion to one's country; also belief that group of states should join together to be one nation (Germany, Italy)
  200. natural resources
    materials that make up environment of an area such as trees, soil, water, minerals, iron, ore, coal, oil; main motive for imperialism and colonialism in Africa and Asia
  201. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    unified markets and trade rules for U.S., Canada, and Mexico; created to lessen trade barriers between member nations
  202. Nazi-Soviet Pact
    agreement between Germany and USSR during WWII to not fight one another; Hitler broke agreement by invading USSR
  203. Neolithic Revolution
    time period when nomadic hunting and gathering was replaced with farming, giving birth to permanent civilizations; Mesopotamia
  204. no-fly zones
    in Iraq; areas where U.S. and its allies banned flights by Iraqi aircrafts following the Gulf War in 1991
  205. nonalignment
    political and diplomatic independence of both Cold War superpowers US and USSR; countries could receive aid from both countries
  206. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    democratic military alliance between US, Britain, France, and other western-European countries to safeguard against threat of Soviet Union
  207. nuclear proliferation
    the spreading of nuclear weapons or capability to use nuclear devices; US/USSR, India/Pakistan, North Korea, Iran
  208. Nuremburg Laws
    laws that took away citizenship and rights away from Jews in Nazi Germany
  209. Nuremburg Trials
    Series of trials where Nazi's were tried for war crimes; showed that war criminals could be held responsible for actions taken during war
  210. Bernardo O'Higgins
    liberator of Chile from Spanish rule; led independence movement in Latin America like Simon Bolivar and Toussaint L'Ouverture
  211. one-child policy
    Chinese government policy of limiting urban families to one child due to overpopulation
  212. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    Middle Eastern countries controlling oil prices as a means of putting economic and political pressure on the West
  213. Open Door Policy
    foreign policy of China allowing all nations to have access to trade within China
  214. Ottoman Empire
    Turkish/Muslim empire known for conquering Constantinople, committing the Armenian Genocide, and being the "Sick Man of Europe" following WWI
  215. overgrazing
    the process by which animals abuse fertile farmland; leads to desertification
  216. Shah Reza Pahlavi
    leader of Iran installed by US who westernized and modernized the country (like Ataturk of Turkey) overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini and Iranian/Islamic Revolution
  217. Pakistan
    country formed after India's independence from Britain; split from India due to Muslim's calling for their own state
  218. Palestinian's
    people native to Palestine who oppose the Jewish state of Israel which caused displacement of Palestinians
  219. Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
    terrorist organization that fought to regain control of Palestine from Jewish control; led by Yassir Arafat
  220. Pan-Africanism
    movement which emphasized unity and strength of Africa; sought to end European domination of the continent
  221. Pan-Arabism
    movement in which Arab's sought to end European domination of Asia and the Middle East
  222. Parliament
    legislative body of England
  223. "Peace, Land, Bread"
    slogan used by Lenin and Bolshevik's to rally support for communist revolt in Russia
  224. peninsula
    land surrounded by water on three sides; Italy
  225. penisulares
    European born citizens of Latin American colonies, the highest social class in colonial Latin America
  226. Perestroika
    Soviet policy of free market economic principles introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev
  227. Persian Gulf War
    Iraq; under the leadership of Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990 and threatened Saudi Arabia; UN and US authorized military response
  228. physical map
    a surface drawing of the geographic features of an area; (mountains, rivers)
  229. pilgrimage
    One of the Five Pillars of Islam; trip made by Muslims to Mecca
  230. pogrom
    violent attacks on Jews, Jewish communities
  231. political map
    map that shows location and boundaries of countries, cities, and states
  232. Pol Pot
    leader of the Khmer Rouge, a communist guerrilla militia responsible for genocide in Cambodia
  233. polytheism
    belief in more than one god; Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks
  234. primary source
    an original source of information; eye-witness account
  235. The Prince 
    book written by Niccolo Machiavelli during the Renaissance about how rulers should obtain and maintain power through ruthless control and doing what's necessary to stay in power
  236. printing press
    invented during the Renaissance by Gutenberg that spread the availability of books and increased literacy rates
  237. proletariat
    the class of industrial workers, possessing neither money or means of production; group that must overthrow bourgeoisie according to Marx' Communist Manifesto
  238. protectorate
    an area that is under the control of another country; tied to imperialism
  239. Protestant Reformation
    movement begun by Martin Luther that sought to reform abuses in Catholic Church which in turn led to other sects of Christianity
  240. Quran
    the sacred book of Muslims
  241. Realpolitik
    realistic politics based on needs of people; Otto von Bismarck
  242. Reconquista
    15th century goal of Spanish monarchy to rid Spain of Jews and Muslims
  243. Reich
    German empire
  244. Reign of Terror
    time period during French Revolution when people in France were executed in massive numbers for not supporting revolution enough
  245. Renaissance
    rebirth; time period beginning in Europe known for focus on education, learning, the arts, humanism, individualism, science
  246. River valley
    civilizations that began near rivers; Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China
  247. Maximillien Robespierre
    radical leader of French Revolution that supported the Reign of Terror by encouraging execution via the guillotine
  248. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
    collection of poems written during the Islamic Golden Age
  249. Russian Revolution
    same as Bolshevik Revolution; 1917; overthrow of czar by Vladimir Lenin and Russian Communists due to food shortages and conditions in WWI
  250. russification
    making a nations culture more Russian
  251. Rwandan Genocide/Civil War
    mass murder and war between Hutu majority and Tutsi minority; 800,000 Rwandan's died as result
  252. Anwar Sadat
    president of Egypt that signed first peace agreement between a Muslim country and Israel
  253. Sahara Desert
    world's largest desert found in Africa
  254. Jose de San Martin
    independence leader that helped Argentina and Chile win independence from Spanish rule
  255. SALT
    a series of arms reduction treaties signed by US/USSR
  256. Salt March
    act of civil disobedience by Gandhi and Indian nationalists; by taking salt from the sea, Indian's directly broke British laws
  257. satellite countries
    countries of Eastern Europe that were controlled by USSR after WWII; Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania
  258. secondary source
    not a first hand account; textbook or encyclopedia
  259. self-determination
    process by which a nation develops its own procedures to deal with economic and political issues w/o interference from other countries
  260. Sepoy Rebellion
    uprising of Indian soldiers against British because of cow and pig fat used on gun cartridges which was against Muslim and Hindu religions
  261. Scientific Revolution
    time period within Renaissance where religious explanations of the physical world were replaced with experimentation, new ideas, and inventions
  262. Shiite
    member of one of the two major Muslim sects; believe descendants of Ali are true Muslim leaders
  263. Sikhs
    a sect of Hindu religion; rejects Hindu doctrines of caste system, reincarnation, believes in one God
  264. Sino-Japanese War
    series of wars between China and Japan, beginning in late 1890s
  265. Adam Smith
    author of "Wealth of Nations" creator of capitalism
  266. Socialism
    economic philosophy or political system where community rather than private individuals own and operate means of production; sharing in work and profit
  267. Solidarity
    Polish labor union, democracy movement, political party that helped to bring down USSR; led by Lech Walesa
  268. Joseph Stalin
    dictator of Soviet Union; imprisoned or killed his political enemies
  269. Sudetenland
    land in Czechoslovakia that was awarded to Hitler to avoid war (appeasement)
  270. Suez Canal
    water route built by Egyptian, British, and French capitalists to connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, cutting down time it took for ships to get from Europe to far East
  271. Sunni
    other major sect of Islam; believe that any pious Muslim can be leader
  272. supply and demand
    terms used in theory of capitalism where the amount of goods available (supply) meets the wants and needs of society (demand)
  273. terracing
    method of farming where crops are planted into mountains or hillsides via terraces in response to mountainous geography
  274. Terra Cotta Warriors
    collection of soldier sculptures buried with Shi Huangdi of Qin China
  275. theocracy
    government run by religious values/leaders
  276. Third Estate
    social and political group in pr-revolutionary France which made up 97% of the population but held no economic or political power; overthrew French monarchy
  277. Third Reich
    name of the Nazi Party for its regime in Germany;held power from 1933-1945
  278. 38th Parallel
    imaginary line that separated North and South Korea
  279. Tiananmen Square
    Chinese students peacefully protested for democratic reforms and were killed by Chinese soldiers and tanks
  280. Tigris River
    opposite the Euphrates River, they both comprised the Fertile Crescent and helped Mesopotamia become the worlds first civilization
  281. Tokugawa Shogunate
    Japanese central government (1600-1900) that brought stability to Japan during the feudal period
  282. totalitarianism
    system of government headed by dictator who controls all aspects of citizens lives; Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin
  283. traditional economy
    economic system based on custom, ritual, habit, trading, bartering, and agriculture
  284. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    agreement between Communist Russia and Germany, ending Russia's involvement in WWI
  285. Treaty of Versailles
    ended WWI; blamed war on Germany, forced Germany to pay massive reparations and disband military; reason for German resentment and starting WWII
  286. Bishop Desmond Tutu
    South African who won Nobel Prize for efforts in ending policy of apartheid
  287. United Nations
    international peace keeping organization started after WWII whose goal was collective security
  288. Universa Declaration of Human Rights
    a UN document that lists basic human rights of all people
  289. Pope Urban II
    Christian leader that rallied support for the Crusades
  290. vassal
    one who held land from a feudal lord and received protection in return for their allegiance (feudalism, manorialism)
  291. Vedas
    collection of prayers, hymns, and religious teachings developed in ancient India, important to Hinduism
  292. Viet Cong
    communist rebels in South Vietnam who sought to overthrow South Vietnam's government; aided by North Vietnam
  293. Pancho Villa
    leader of the Mexican Revolution
  294. Vietnam War
    Cold War conflict between Vietnam and US waged to halt the spread of communism in South Vietnam; ended w/ US withdrawal and a unified communist Vietnam
  295. Warsaw Pact
    communist military alliance made up of USSR and their satellite nations in Eastern Europe in response to NATO
  296. Wealth of Nations 
    book written by Adam Smith that outlined the economic theory of capitalism
  297. Weimar Republic
    German republic formed after Germany's defeat in WWI; ended with Hitler's rise to power in 1933
  298. West African Kingdoms
    Ghana, Mali, and Songhai known for dominating gold and salt trade
  299. West Bank
    one of the "Occupied Territories" controlled by Israel after winning the Arab-Israeli War of 1967
  300. West Germany
    formed following WWII, it was the democratic half of Germany opposing communist East Germany
  301. World Bank
    an agency of the UN that promotes the economic development of member nations
  302. World Trade Organization
    international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
  303. World War I
    (1914-1919) in which Triple Alliance of Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary were defeated by Triple Entente of France, England, Russia; US joined in 1917 and helped Triple Entente win the war
  304. World War II
    (1939-1945) Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan were defeated by Allied Powers of Britain, USSR, and US
  305. Zagros Mountains
    mountain range in Iran and continues into Iraq; the main oil fields of Iran are located at the foot of the mountain range
  306. Emiliano Zapata
    leader of Mexican Revolution
  307. Mao Zedong
    leader of China who made it a communist nation; used similar tactics as Stalin such as work camps, collectivized farming, and five year plans; known for Cultural Revolution and Great Leap Forward
  308. Zionism
    belief amongst Jews that they should have a homeland in Palestine; achieved with creation of Israel in 1948
  309. Shaka Zulu
    influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom located in Southern Africa; famous for battles with British Empire
  310. 12 Tables
    codified Roman laws; similar to Hammurabi's and Justinian's Code

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