#2 HIST Ch 29-30

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ironmonstar
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#2 HIST Ch 29-30
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2013-05-09 05:05:47
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The Fifties & Civil Rights
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  1. Levittown
    In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive houses in suburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the postwar move to the suburbs. p. 688
  2. Baby Boom
    The rise in births following World War II. Children born to this generation are referred to as “ baby boomers.” p. 688
  3. Kinsey Report
    Kinsey report which had stated in the late 1940s that one in ten American males had engaged in homosexual behav-ior.
  4. Taft-Hartley Act
    This 1947 anti- union legislation outlawed the closed shop and secondary boycotts. It also authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strikes that threatened national security. p. 675 and later wanted to be reprealed by Truman after his win in 1949
  5. Advertising Council
  6. William H. Whyte
    Th e most sweep-ing indictment came in William H. Whyte’s Th e Organization Man ( 1956), based on a study of the Chicago suburb of Park Forest. Whyte perceived a change from the old Protestant ethic, with its emphasis on hard work and personal responsibility, to a new social ethic cen-tered on “ the team” with the ultimate goal of “ belongingness.” Th e result was a stifl ing conformity and the loss of personal identity.
  7. C. Wright Mills
    C. Wright Mills was a far more caustic commentator on American society in the 1950s. Anticipating government statistics that revealed white- collar workers ( salesclerks, offi ce workers, bank tellers) now outnumbered blue- collar workers ( miners, factory workers, mill hands), Mills described the new middle class in omi-nous terms in his books White Collar ( 1951) and Power Elite ( 1956). Th e corporation was the villain for Mills, depriving offi ce work-ers of their own identities and imposing an impersonal discipline through manipulation and propaganda. Th e industrial assembly line had given way to an even more dehumanizing workplace, the modern offi ce. “ At rows of blank- looking counters sat rows of blank- looking girls with blank, white folders in their blank hands, all blankly folding blank papers.”
  8. David Reisman
    Th e most infl uential social critic of the 1950s was Harvard sociologist David Riesman. His book Th e Lonely Crowd appeared in 1950 and set the tone for intellectual commentary about suburbia for the rest of the decade. Riesman described the shift from the “ inner-directed” Americans of the past who had relied on such traditional values as self- denial and frugality to the “ other- directed” Americans of the consumer society who constantly adapted their behavior to conform to social pressures. Th e consequences— a decline in indi-vidualism and a tendency for people to become acutely sensitive to the expectations of others— produced a bland and tolerant society of consumers lacking creativity and a sense of adventure.
  9. Jack Kerouac
    This disenchantment with the consumer culture reached its most eloquent expression with the beats , literary groups that rebelled against the materialistic society of the 1950s. Jack Kerouac’s novel On the Road , published in 1957, set the tone for the new movement. Th e name came from the quest for beatitude, a state of inner grace sought in Zen Buddhism. Flouting the respectability of suburbia, the “ beatniks”— as middle America termed them— were

    Novelist Jack Kerouac and his fellow “ beat” writers bemoaned the moral bankruptcy of popular culture. They sought not to improve conditions but to fi nd release from the moral and social confi nes constricting their lives and the literary conventions circumscribing their writing. This photograph of Jack Kerouac was taken by beat poet Allen Ginsberg.
  10. Betty Freidan
    Betty Friedan was a writer and a major American feminist during the 1960s and 1970s. She was the founder of the National Organization for Women ( NOW), and her book The Feminist Mystique helped ignite the “ second wave” of American feminism in the 20th century.
  11. Jackson Pollock
    Th e social protest inherent in the books and poems of the beats found its artistic counterpart in the rise of abstract expressionism. Abstract expressionists worked in styles that emphasized individu-ality and freedom from the constraints of representational, realistic art. Painters Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko, among others, chal-lenged mainstream America’s notions about the form and function of art. For Pollock, the act of creating a painting was as important as the painting itself. Rothko pioneered a style known as color fi eld painting; his works in this style are monumental pieces in which enormous areas of color lacking any distinct structure or central focus are used to create a mood.
  12. Fair Deal
    Three reform measures stood out in Truman’s plan for a Fair Deal. Th e fi rst measure called for medical insurance for all Americans, designed to provide a comprehensive solution to the nation’s health problem. Equally controversial was the second mea-sure that proposed establishing a compulsory Fair Employment Practices Commission ( FEPC) to open up employment oppor-tunities for African Americans. During World War II, President Roosevelt had created a voluntary Fair Employment Practices Committee, but Congress stopped funding, and it expired in 1946. Th e third measure called for federal aid to education in order to help the states and local school districts meet the demands created by the postwar baby boom.

    Congress didnt Support but Truman’s only successes came in expanding Social Security
  13. Earl Warren
    Chief Justice Earl Warren noted. “ Th ere was segregation in the hospitals, prisons, mental institutions, and nursing homes. Even ambulance service was segregated.” 699

    Th e Supreme Court was unanimous in its 1954 decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka . Chief Justice Earl Warren, recently appointed by President Eisenhower, wrote the landmark opinion fl atly declaring that “ separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” To divide grade school children “ solely because of their race,” Warren argued, “ generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may aff ect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone.” Despite this sweeping language, Warren realized it would be diffi cult to change historic patterns of segregation quickly. 700
  14. Brown v. Board of Education
    In 1954, the Supreme Court reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson decision ( 1896), which established the “ separate but equal” doctrine. The Brown decision found segregation in schools inherently unequal and initiated a long and difficult effort to integrate the nation’s public schools. p. 700
  15. Thurgood Marshall
  16. Emmett Till
  17. Civil Rights Act of 1957
    In 1957, the Eisenhower admin-istration proposed the fi rst general civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. Th e fi nal act, how-ever, did create a permanent Commission for Civil Rights, one of Truman’s original goals. It also provided for federal eff orts aimed at “ securing and protecting the right to vote.” A second civil rights act in 1960 slightly strengthened the voting rights section.
  18. Rosa Parks
    in Montgomery, Alabama. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks— a black seamstress who had been active in the local NAACP chapter— violated a city ordi-nance by refusing to give up her seat to a white person on a local. Tthe arrest of Rosa Parks sparked a massive protest movement. Black women played a particularly important role in the protest, printing and handing out fi ft y thousand leafl ets to rally the African American community behind Parks. Th e move-ment also led to the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr., as an eloquent new spokesman for African Americans.
  19. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    Arrest of Rosa Parks lead to emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr., as an eloquent new spokesman for African Americans. King agreed to lead the subsequent bus boycott. Th e son of a famous Atlanta preacher, he had recently taken his fi rst church in Montgomery aft er years of studying theology while earning a Ph. D. at Boston University. Now he would be able to combine his wide learning with his charismatic appeal in behalf of a practical goal— fair treatment for the African Americans who made up the bulk of the riders on the city’s buses.

    Lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference ( SCLC) to direct the crusade against segregation. He visited Th ird World leaders in Africa and Asia and paid hom-age
  20. Southern Christian Leadership Council
    An orga-nization founded by Martin Luther King, Jr., to fight segregation through passive resistance, nonviolence, and peaceful confrontation. p. 702
  21. Montgomery Bus Boycott
    In late 1955, African Americans led by Martin Luther King, Jr., boycotted the buses in Montgomery, Alabama, after seamstress Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to move to the back of a bus. The boycott, which ended when the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the protesters, marked the beginning of a new, activist phase of the civil rights movement. p. 702
  22. Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee
    A group organized by students to work for equal rights for African Americans. It spearheaded peaceful sit- its and marches in the early 1960s, but later grew more radical and changed its name to the Student National Coordinating Committee. p. 703
  23. Greensboro Sit-ins
    North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College sat down at a dime- store lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, and refused to move aft er being denied service. Other students, both whites and blacks, joined in similar “ sit- ins” across the South, as well as “ kneel- ins” at churches and “ wade- ins” at swimming pools. By the end of the year, some fi ft y thousand young people had suc-ceeded in desegregating public facilities
  24. Little Rock, Arkansas
    In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas called out the national guard to prevent the integration of Little Rock’s Central High School on grounds of a threat to public order. Aft er 270 armed troops turned back nine young African American stu-dents, a federal judge ordered the guardsmen removed
  25. Orval Faubus
    In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas called out the national guard to prevent the integration of Little Rock’s Central High School on grounds of a threat to public order. Aft er 270 armed troops turned back nine young African American stu-dents, a federal judge ordered the guardsmen removed
  26. National Defense Education Act
    The National Defense Education Act ( NDEA) helped schools improve and broaden their science and math offerings as academic leaders helped design “ new math” and “ new physics” courses. The act also created a loan fund to assist needy students in meeting the costs of a college educa-tion, as well as establishing graduate fellowships in science, engineering, and foreign area studies.
  27. ICBM
    Th e Reaction to Sputnik ,” pp. 694– 695 .) Fearful that the Russians were several years ahead of the United States in the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles ( ICBMs), Democrats criticized Eisenhower for not spending enough on defense and warned that a dangerous missile gap would open up by the early 1960s— a time when the Russians might have such a com-manding lead in ICBMs that they could launch a fi rst strike and destroy America. Despite the president’s belief that the American missile program was in good shape, he allowed increased defense spending to speed up the building of American ICBMs and the new Polaris submarine– launched intermediate range missile ( IRBM).
  28. New Frontier
    President John F. Kennedy’s program to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights. p. 708
  29. Robert McNamara
    ennedy surrounded him-self with young pragmatic advisers who prided themselves on toughness: McGeorge Bundy, dean of Harvard College, became national security adviser; Walt W. Rostow, an MIT economist, was Bundy’s deputy; and Robert McNamara, the youthful president of the Ford Motor Company, took over as secretary of defense.
  30. Dean Rusk
    His choice of Dean Rusk, an experienced but unassertive diplomat, to head the State Department indicated that Kennedy planned to be his own secretary of state.
  31. McGeorge Bundy
    Kennedy surrounded him-self with young pragmatic advisers who prided themselves on toughness: McGeorge Bundy, dean of Harvard College, became national security adviser; Walt W. Rostow, an MIT economist, was Bundy’s deputy; and Robert McNamara, the youthful president of the Ford Motor Company, took over as secretary of defense.
  32. Walt Rostow
    Kennedy surrounded him-self with young pragmatic advisers who prided themselves on toughness: McGeorge Bundy, dean of Harvard College, became national security adviser; Walt W. Rostow, an MIT economist, was Bundy’s deputy; and Robert McNamara, the youthful president of the Ford Motor Company, took over as secretary of defense.

    Walt Rostow summed up their view of the contest with Russia best when he wrote, “ Th e cold war comes down to this test of whether we and the democratic world are fundamentally tougher and more purposeful in the defense of our vital interests than they are in the pursuit of their global ambitions.”
  33. Berlin Wall
  34. Nikita Kruschev
    Nikita Khrushchev, just emerging as Stalin’s successor. President John F. Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, and the crisis ended. p. 711
  35. Peace Corps
    resident Kennedy pointed out that the Soviet Union "had hundreds of men and women, scientists, physicists, teachers, engineers, doctors, and nurses . . . prepared to spend their lives abroad in the service of world communism." The United States had no such program, and Kennedy wanted to involve Americans more actively in the cause of global democracy, peace, development, and freedom.
  36. Alliance for Progress
    ambitious Alliance for Progress— a massive economic aid program for Latin America—
  37. Bay of Pigs
    Bay of Pigs In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles, organized and supported by the CIA, landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for it. p. 710
  38. Cuban Missile Crisis
    October 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when President John F. Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, and the crisis ended. p. 711
  39. Freedom Riders
    Sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality ( CORE), freedom rides on buses by civil rights advocates in 1961 in the South were designed to test the enforcement of federal regulations that prohibited seg-regation in interstate public transportation. p. 714
  40. Congress of Racial Equality "CORE"
    In May 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality ( CORE) sponsored a freedom ride in which a biracial group attempted to test a 1960 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation in all bus and train stations used in interstate commerce. When they arrived in Birmingham, Alabama, the freedom riders were attacked by a mob of angry whites. Th e attorney general quickly dispatched several hundred federal marshals to protect the freedom riders, but the president, deeply involved in the Berlin crisis, was more upset at the distraction the protesters created. Kennedy directed one of his aides to get in touch with the leaders of CORE. “ Tell them to call it off ,” he demanded. “ Stop them.”
  41. James Meredith
    A pattern of belated reaction to southern racism marked the basic approach of the Kennedys. When James Meredith coura-geously sought admission to the all- white University of Mississippi in 1962, the president and the attorney general worked closely with Mississippi governor Ross Barnett to avoid violence. A tran-script of Robert Kennedy’s conversation with Governor Barnett on September 25 indicates that the attorney general focused on the legal rather than the moral issues involved: Despite Barnett’s later promise of cooperation, the night before Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, a mob attacked the federal marshals and national guard troops sent to protect him. Th e violence left 2 dead and 375 injured, including 166 marshals and 12 guardsmen, but Meredith attended the uni-versity and eventually graduated.
  42. Bull Connor
    After Public marches and Protesting for equal rights, protesters were harassed and many arrests, including that of King himself. Police Commissioner Eugene “ Bull” Connor was determined to crush the civil rights movement; King was equally determined to prevail. Writing from his cell in Birmingham, he vowed an active campaign to bring the issue of racial injustice to national attention. Bull Connor played directly into King’s hands. On May 3, as six thousand children marched in place of the jailed protesters, authorities broke up a demonstration with clubs, snarling police dogs, and high- pressure water hoses strong enough to take the bark off a tree. With a horrifi ed nation watching scene aft er scene of this brutality on television, the Kennedy administration quickly inter-vened to arrange a settlement with the Birmingham civic leaders that ended the violence and granted the protesters most of their demands.
  43. Letter From Birmingham Jail
    After Public marches and Protesting for equal rights, protesters were harassed and many arrests, including that of King himself. Police Commissioner Eugene “ Bull” Connor was determined to crush the civil rights movement; King was equally determined to prevail. Writing from his cell in Birmingham, he vowed an active campaign to bring the issue of racial injustice to national attention. Bull Connor played directly into King’s hands. On May 3, as six thousand children marched in place of the jailed protesters, authorities broke up a demonstration with clubs, snarling police dogs, and high- pressure water hoses strong enough to take the bark off a tree. With a horrifi ed nation watching scene aft er scene of this brutality on television, the Kennedy administration quickly inter-vened to arrange a settlement with the Birmingham civic leaders that ended the violence and granted the protesters most of their demands.
  44. George Wallace
    1963, Kennedy sent the deputy attorney general to face down Governor George C. Wallace, an avowed segregation-ist who had promised “ to stand in the schoolhouse door” to prevent the integration of the University of Alabama. After a brief confrontation, Wallace yielded to federal authority, and two African American students peacefully desegregated the state university.
  45. March on Washington
    August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President John F. Kennedy’s civil rights bill. The high point was Martin Luther King, Jr.’ s “ I Have a Dream” speech. p. 717
  46. Malcom X

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