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- -Process between leaders and followers
- -involves social influence
- -occurs at multiple levels in an org.
- -focuses on goal accomplishment
- physical or personality characteristic that can be used to differentiate leaders from
Core Leader Traits (5)
- 4)Level of Energy+Activity
- 5)Task-Relevant Knowledge
Implicit Leadership Theory
- based on the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what
- they should do for their followers.
- mental representations of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed
- by leaders.
Bad Leader Traits
Trait Theory Takeaways
- 1)Orgs. may want to include personality+trait assessments into selection/promotion processes
- 2)Mgmt. development programs can be used to build a pipeline of leadership talent.
Ohio State Studies: Consideration
creating mutual respect and trust with followers
Ohio State Studies: Initiating Structure
organizing and defining what group members should be doing
Behavioral Styles Takeaways
- 1)Leader behaviors can be systematically improved/developed
- 2)No 1 best style of leadership
- 3)Effectiveness of particular leadership style depends on situation at hand
- propose that the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
- based on the premise that a leader’s effectiveness is contingent on the extent to
- which a leader’s style fits or matches characteristics of the situation at
Fiedler's Situational Control
- refers to the amount of control and influence the leader has in his immediate work
3 Dimensions of Situational Control
- 1)Leader-Member Relations
- 2)Task Structure
- 3)Position Power
extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty, and trust of work group
concerned with the amount of structure contained within tasks performed by the work group
- the degree to which the leader has formal power to reward, punish, or otherwise
- obtain compliance from employees
- Describes how leadership effectiveness is
- influenced by the interaction between four leadership styles – directive,
- supportive, participative, achievement-oriented
Situational variables that cause one style of leadership to be more effective than another
- 1)Leadership is more complex and involves greater variety of leader behavior
- 2)Role of intrinsic motivation and empowerment in influencing leadership effectiveness
- 3)Shared Leadership
- focuses on clarifying employees’ role and task requirements and providing followers
- with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance.
- engender trust, seek to develop leadership in others, exhibit self-sacrifice and serve
- as moral agents, focusing themselves and followers on objectives that transcend
- the more immediate needs of the work group.
Leader-Member Exchange Model (LMX)
- Focuses on the quality of relationships
- between managers and subordinates as opposed to the behaviors or traits of
- either leaders or followers.
- Assumes that leaders develop unique
- one-on-one relationships with direct reports.
- leaders and followers develop a partnership characterized by reciprocal influence,
- mutual trust, respect and liking, and a sense of common fates.
- Leaders are characterized as overseers who fail to create a sense of mutual trust,
- respect, or common fate
- dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the
- objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational
- goals or both
focuses on increasing services to others rather than to oneself less likely to engage in self-serving behaviors that hurt others