American Government

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bears4kris
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218572
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American Government
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2013-05-10 12:07:54
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American Government Final
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American Government Final
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  1. Political Socialization
    The process whereby individuals acquire political knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs.  This process starts in grade school and continues through adulthood.
  2. Agents of socialization
    factors that contribute to political socialization by shaping formal and informal learning.
  3. Literary digest poll
    In 1936, the magazine mailed 10 million ballots to names taken from telephone directors and automobile registration lists.  About two million people responded.  On that basis, Literary Digest predicted that Alf Landon, the Republican challenger, would defeat Democrat Franklin Roosevelt by a resounding 57 percent to 43 percent margin.   Roosevelt won by a landslide.  What went wrong?  In the midst of the Great Depression, most of the people who owned telephones and automobiles were middle and upper income who tended to vote Republican.  In contract, many poor and working class people could not afford cars and telephones, and were not sampled by the poll.  Most of them voted for Roosevelt.
  4. Phantom Opinion
    Made up responses from respondents who do not want to appear uninformed.
  5. Political Participation
    An activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action.  Voting is the most common form of political participation.
  6. Political Efficacy
    The extent to which individuals believe they can influence the policymaking process.
  7. Voter participation among age groups
    Voter turnout is typically lowest for younger adults because they tend to have fewer and are less interested in the policy process than older adults.  Participation increases with each successive age group, with the peak voting years coming between 65 and 74 years of age.   After age 75 voter participation begins to decline because illness and infirmity in the elderly.
  8. Public Broadcast System  PBS
    non-profit public broadcasting television network in the United States, with 354 member television stations which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia
  9. National Public Radio
    privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States
  10. Government role of public broadcasting
    Corporation for Public Broadcasting is a government agency chartered and funded by the US government with the goal of promoting public broadcasting.  It provides some funding for both the PBS and NPR, private non-profit media services.
  11. Government Ownership
    Relatively limited to the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service.
  12. Objective journalism
    Style of news reporting that focuses on facts rather than opinion, and presents all sides of controversial issues.
  13. Media bias
    60 percent of Americans believe that the press is politically biased.  Sixty-three percent believe that stories in the media are often inaccurate, 74 percent think that media stories tend to favor one side, and 74 percent say that the media are influenced y powerful people and organizations.
  14. Signaling role
    A term that refers to accepted responsibility of the media to alert the public to important developments as they happen.
  15. Framing
    The process by which a communication source, such as a news organization, defines and constructs a political issue or public controversy.
  16. Political Punditry
    someone who offers to mass media his or her opinion or commentary on a particular subject area (most typically political analysis, the social sciences or sport) on which they are usually knowledgeable (or can at least appear to be knowledgeable).
  17. Federal Communication Commission
    an independent agency of the United States government, created by Congressional statute and with the majority of its commissioners appointed by the current President. The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, competition, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security.
  18. Interest Groups
    Organization of people who join together voluntarily on the basis of some interest they share for the purpose of influencing policy.
  19. Political party
    Group of individuals who join together to seek government office in order to make public policy.
  20. Political Action Committee (PAC)
    Organization created to raise and distribute money in election campaigns.  PAC can give a candidate $5,000 for each election by federal law.
  21. 527 Committee
    Organization created to influence the outcomes of elections by raising and spending money that candidates and political parties cannot raise legally.
  22. Types of interest groups
    Business group, organized labor, Professional associations, Agriculture groups, Racial and Ethnic Groups, Religious groups, citizen groups and advocacy groups.
  23. Single interest groups (cause groups)
    Care intensely about a single issue or small group of related issues.
  24. Lobbying
    Communication of information by a representative of an interest group to a government official for the purpose of influencing a policy decision.
  25. Interest groups
    Employ a variety of tactics in an effort to achieve their goals, including electioneering, lobbying, creating public pressure, protest demonstrations, litigations, and political violence.
  26. Divided Government
    The phenomenon of one political party controlling the legislative branch of government while the other holds the executive branch.
  27. Unified Government
    Similar party controlling the legislative branch of government and the executive branch.
  28. Straight ticket ballot
    Voters selecting the entire slate of candidates of one party only.
  29. Split ticket ballot
    Voters casting their ballots for the candidates of two or more political parties.
  30. Gerrymandering
    The drawing of legislative district lines for political advantage.
  31. Soft money
    The name given to funds that are raised by political parties that are not subject to federal campaign finance regulations.
  32. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)
    A campaign finance reform law designed to limit the political influence of "big money" campaign contributors.
  33. Golden rules and the relationship of Government as it relates to both.
    • The law is a living document and is not set in stone.
    • Politics is not the same as policy.
  34. Liberalism
    The political philosophy that favors the use of government power to foster the development of the individual and promote the welfare of society.
  35. Conservatism
    The political philosophy that government power undermines the development of the individual and diminishes society as a whole.
  36. Party platform
    Statement of party principles and issue positions.
  37. Political party and interest group differences
  38. Factors that contribute to a third party candidate success or failure
  39. Campaign donations and access
  40. Factors that help determine interest groups success
  41. What is the organization of political parties and how are they set up?
  42. Who are the leaders of political parties?
  43. After the election of 2008 who controlled the government?
  44. Gender gap in political context
  45. Types of groups that tend to vote with each party
  46. What party gained popularity in the 2010 elections?
    Tea party
  47. Multi issue groups

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