CHS 230 Final

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  1. sources of readily accessible water
    • approximately 3% of all water is freshwater, of which the majority is unavailable to human use (frozen in icecaps)
    • the remaining 1% comes from surface freshwater, lakes, rivers, and shallow underground aquifers
  2. areas of the world with the most significant population growth and water shortages
    • Africa (sub-Saharan and North)
    • Near East
  3. Hydrologic Cycle aka Water Cycle
    the continuous movement of water, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.
  4. global water fluxes
    • evaporation of ocean water accounts for 85% of the water that falls on land as precipitation
    • infiltration or groundwater recharge accounts for 9.6% of all 'outflows' of surface water
  5. source water
    untreated and unfiltered water in rivers, streams, lakes and aquifers from with water utilities draw water to be treated, filtered and tested to produce drinking water.
  6. surface water
    • includes water from lakes, streams, rivers and surface springs.
    • vulnerable to contamination by a variety of human, animal and industrial sources and therefore has been subject to some of the most stringent testing and treatment requirements
  7. finished water
    water leaving the plant and ready to be used by consumers after being collected, treated and filtered by a water utility
  8. aquifer
    a layer or section of the earth or rock that contains freshwater, known as ground water
  9. ground water
    • comes from aquifers deep underground and is less susceptible to contamination than surface water
    • any water that is stored underground or that flows through rock or soil, supplying springs and wells
  10. major sources of surface water contaminants
    • urban runoff(pesticides, nutrients PAHs, motor oil, sewage)
    • agriculture runoff(nutrients, pesticides, bacteria from feedlots)
    • air pollutant deposition
    • groundwater discharge
    • erosion (nutrients and pesticides)
    • industrial point sources (various pollutants)
    • transportation sources (roadway runoff)
  11. major surface water contaminants (activities)
    • failing septic systems, chemical septic system cleaners
    • improper storage and application of fertilizers, pesticides, and lawn care chemicals
    • disposal of household cleaners, automotive products, poisons, waste oil, pain thinners, gasoline, pet waste into septic systems and storm drains
    • driveway runoff of oils, gasoline, heavy metals, de-icing chemicals
    • leaking underground heating oil tanks
  12. SDWA (safe drinking water act)
    • requires EPA to establish National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for contaminants that may cause adverse health affects
    • requires EPA to exercise oversight on all 160,000 public drinking water systems in the us and regulates the levels of more than 90 potential water contaminants
  13. MCLs
    • maximum contaminant levels
    • NPDWRs mandates MCLs for each contaminant
  14. MCLGs
    • maximum contaminant level goals
    • nonenforcable health goals for each contaminant
  15. common sources of domestic drinking water
    • groundwater
    • surface water
  16. pretreatment for municipal drinking water
    minimal aeration, filtration and disinfection
  17. air pollution
    undesirable amounts of particulate or gaseous matter in the atmosphere
  18. common sources of air pollution
    • natural or anthropogenic
    • volcano eruptions, forest fires, dust storms, salt evaporation, mold spores, pollen, organic material from plans and animals
  19. indoor pollution
    • cockroaches
    • persistent dampness
    • wall-to-wall carpeting
    • exposure to tobacco smoke
    • infestations with rodents
    • pets that have fur
    • effluents from gas stoves
    • construction materials that contain formaldehyde
    • dust mites
    • molds
    • bacterial agents
  20. sick building sickness
    no specific illness or cause can be identified
  21. building-related illness
    describes a diagnosable illness
  22. improvements in biomass stoves
  23. stationary sources of pollution
    • electric generating plants
    • factories and manufacturing complexes
    • oil refineries
    • chemical plants
    • incinerators
  24. mobile sources of pollution
    • on road vehicles (cars trucks, buses)
    • off road vehicles (dune buggies, snowmobile)
    • non road vehicles (airplanes, ships and trains)
  25. EPA criteria pollutants
    • smog forming
    • oxides of sulfur (SOx)
    • oxides of nitrogens (NOx)
    • carbon monoxide (CO)
    • lead (Pb)
    • particulate matter (PM)
    • Ozone (O3)
  26. hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)
    • mobile source air toxics
    • urban air toxics
    • diesel particulate matter
  27. acid rain
    refers to the precipitation of acidic compounds (SOx and NOx) formed when components of air pollution interact with other components in the air such as water, oxygen and oxidants
  28. PM2.5
    • particles capable of being inhaled deeply into the lungs
    • not cleared readily from the body
    • associated with 60,000 deaths annually in the U.S.
  29. PM10
    stick to nasal passages trachea and bronchi
  30. particulate air pollution
    • anything solid or liquid suspended in the air
    • smoke, fumes, soot and other combustion by products, natural particles (windblown  dust, sea salt, pollen, and spores)
    • includes primary and secondary particles
  31. ozone formation
    formed by the photochemical reaction of oxygen (O2)  with volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) in the presence of sunlight
  32. smog
    • a mixture of pollutants, principally ground-level ozone, produced by chemical reactions in the air involving smog-forming chemicals
    • anthropogenic/natural
  33. components of diesel exhaust
    a complex mixture of particles and gases; includes the element carbon, condensed hydrocarbon gases and polycyclic hydrocabron (PAHs)
  34. health effects of diesel exhaust
    high lung cancer rates upon exposure
  35. primary air quality standards
    • sets limits to protect public health
    • "sensitive" populations-asthmatics, children and the elderly
  36. secondary standards
    • sets limits to protect public welfare
    • includes protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings
  37. air quality index (AQI)
    used to provide the public with an indication of air quality in a local area on a daily basis
  38. human energy use
    • 80% is in he form of oil, gas, and coal
    • primary source of electricity is coal
  39. association between energy consumption and health
    • greater energy availability is associated with longer life spans and improved health
    • at the upper end of the spectrum, increased energy use generates only marginal health gains
  40. supply and demand of energy in the US
    • supply sources: petroleum 37.1%, natural gas 23.8%, coal 22.5%
    • demand sources: transportation 27.8%, electric power 40.1%
  41. Hubbert's Peak Oil Theory
    • petroleum is a finite resource
    • it is nonrenewable on any human time scale: supply will at some point fall short of demand
  42. energy ladder
    as prosperities increase, societies tend to substitute cleaner, more efficient and more convenient energy sources for the the less costly but more polluting sources a the ladder's base
  43. energy use in developed countries vs undeveloped countries
    developed countries use a lot more energy than undeveloped countries
  44. characteristics of current patterns of energy use (4)
    • 1: more developed areas of the world have higher per capita energy consumption and higher associated emissions per capita as well
    • 2: more developed areas rely disproportionately on cleaner forms of energy production that are higher on the energy ladder
    • 3: more developed regions rely more heavily on electricity, a more efficient mode of energy production
    • 4: Higher levels of development are associated with increased capacity and willingness to distribute health impacts both onto distant populations and to future generations
  45. disorders associated with coal mining
    • pulmonary disorders
    • pneumoconiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and accelerated loss of lung fucntion
  46. emission characteristics of coal fired power plants
    • CO2 emissions are directly linked to the efficiency with which fossil fuels are converted into electricity
    • a typical power plant converts only about 1/3 of the energy contained in coal into electricity, the remainder is emitted as waste heat
  47. fracking
    hydraulic fracturing is a technique used to create fractures that extend from the well bore into rock or coal formations. these fractures allow the oil or gas to travel more easily from the rock pores to the production well.
  48. CO2 emission profiles
    fossil fuels are higher than renewable sources
  49. built environment
    the part of the environment formed and shaped by humans, including buildings, structures, landscaping, roads, sign, trails and utilities
  50. community design
    became important after WWII when the ideal american dream led to the process of suburbanization and the abundance of homes, jobs and access to education
  51. urbanization
    • growth within cities
    • due to rapid birth rate and industrialization
  52. urban land use planning
    • concepts of design:
    • land use
    • transportation
    • land conservation (parks, recreation, historic preservation and landscape architecture)
  53. zoning
    partitioning of land for specific use
  54. considerations in urban land use planning
    • transportation
    • urban renewal and reconstruction
    • sound barrier (residential areas must be protected for areas of frequent noise)
    • aesthetics (parks, recreation, and beatification)
    • environmental planning: toxic constraints of surrounding environment and resource use and waste extraction
  55. urban sprawl
    • 2-3 houses per acre
    • land use mix decreased
    • increased trip distances making non motorized travel inconvenient
  56. effects of urban sprawl
    • Social effects:
    • increased cost to the public: roads and infrastructure constantly being improved
    • decrease in social capital: since bigger properties are claimed, isolation occurs between neighbors
    • health effects: heavy dependence on motor vehicles and displacement of wildlife and destruction of habitats
  57. structural problems in urban land use
    • separation of land uses through zoning
    • low density development
    • dispersion of activity centers
    • automobile oriented transportation system
    • disinvestment in central cities
  58. design for the promotion of physical activity
    • colocation: brings together things that are normally further from each other and promote walking and bicycling
    • higher density development: is an effective strategy to promote walking
    • creating grid-like networks of sidewalks and paths: increase physical activity
  59. urban air pollution
    high density traffic leads to pollution hot spots
  60. automobile risk
    • top ten premature death in US
    • lower population densities have higher rates of traffic fatalities
    • local roadway designs like roundabouts and speedbumps lower crashes and severity
  61. SES and food
    with lower incomes, simple carbs are becoming cheaper to buy, thus becoming a heavy part of the diet
  62. chronic noise exposure
    • relationship between traffic noise above 60 db and heat attach
    • school children exhibiting poorer recognition memory, reading comprehension and heightened annoyance when exposed to aircraft noise
  63. social capital
    • refers to the social networks and resources within a community and the benefits that arise when interacting with community members
    • important to the well-being and mental health of citizens
  64. smart growth
    • mixing land uses
    • creating walkable neighborhoods
    • providing a variety of transportation
    • preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty
    • create a rounds of housing opportunities and choices
    • encourage community and stakeholder collaboration
    • strengthen and direct development towards existing communities
    • take advantage of compact building designs
    • make development decisions, predictable, fair and cost effective
  65. universal design
    refers to the design of products and environments to be usable by all people to the greatest extent possible without the need for adaption or specialized design. Smart growth helps cities promote universal desgin
  66. urban design and mental health
    • noise can be a long term of stress to sleepless anxiety and other mental disorders
    • sprawling communities can lead to social isolation and depression
    • frequent commuting has been linked to increased BP, back pain, CVD and self-reported stress
    • road rage and impulsive behavior
    • parks and green areas promote stress reduction and relaxation
  67. sustainable design
    refers to initiatives by cities nations and their planners to decrease rapid use/impact of use of natural resources and to contend with population growth and global climate change
  68. foodborne illness
    illness acquired by consumption of contaminated food
  69. factors that contribute to increases in foodborne illness
    • changes in agricultural and food processing methods: greater amounts of livestock, increased disease and increased antibiotic use, more processed foods
    • increasing globalization in food distribution: fast food and food distribution social and behavioral changes among the human population

  70. top 6 pathogens contributing to foodborne disease mortality
    • salmonella
    • listeria
    • toxoplasma
    • norwalk-like virus
    • campylobacter
    • e. coli O157:H7
  71. sources of human exposure to salmonella spp.
    • raw or undercooked food
    • pet  turtles
  72. individuals at risk for contacting listeria monocytogenes
    • pregnant women
    • newborns
    • people with weakened immune systems
    • persons with cancer, diabetes or kidney disease
    • persons with aids
    • persons who take glucocorticosteroid medications
    • the elderly
  73. routes of exposure to toxoplasma gondii
    • eating undercooked meat of animals harboring
    • cysts consuming food water contaminated with cat feces or by contaminated
    • environmental samples blood transfusion or organ transplants
    • transplacentally from mother to fetus
  74. clostridum botulinum mechanism of toxic action
    grows in an anaerobic environment and produces a potent neurotoxin that affects the nervous system
  75. endemic diseases in countries with poor sanitation
    • salmonella typhi:typhoid fever
    • vibrio cholerae: cholera
    • rota virus
    • ascaris lubmricoides: roundworm asaris
    • echinococcus: tapeworm
    • schistosmiasis: fluke or trematode
    • giardia lamblia
  76. vibrio cholerae mechonism of toxic action
    • cholera toxin binds to intestinal lining (enterocytes)
    • causes massive influx of ions and water
    • leads to water diarrhea, dehydration and sometimess death
  77. Food, drug, and cosmetics Act FDCA: delaney clause
    the secretary of the FDA shall not approve for use in food any chemical additive found to induce cancer in man, or after tests, found to induce cancer in animals
  78. FDA safety monitoring programs
    • raw agricultural produce, fish, dairy products, and processed food
    • incidence or level monitoring: FDA tries to determine how often a certain pesticide is found on a particular crop
    • total diet studies: analysis of pesticide residues that remain in a typical meal, info on what people eat or what is a typical meal
  79. water poverty index
    • an aggregate index, describing the lack of freshwater
    • based on: resources, access, capacity, use and environment
  80. driving factors of urbanization
    driven by people who are fleeing collapsing rural economies, lack of rural infrastructure and services, landlessness, and lack of rural employment opporotunities
  81. international disparities in resource utilization rates
    the united states uses a lot of energy and oil
  82. common causes of soil degradation
    • deforestation
    • overexploitation for domestic uses such as fencing and fuel wood, overgrazing, unsustainable agricultural practices, and conversion of arable land to residential and industrial uses
  83. regions of the world that are water stressed
    • south asia
    • middle and southern africa
    • middle east
  84. principal causes of deforestation (6)
    • logging for fuel wood and construction
    • slash and burn farming
    • mining and petroleum exploration
    • cattle ranching and livestock grazing
    • commercial agriculture
    • infrastructure development (roads etc)
  85. symptoms of environmental distress syndrome (4)
    • the reemergence of infections diseases
    • the loss of biodiversity and the consequent loss of potential sources of new drugs and crops
    • the growing dominance of generalists species  such as crows and canada geese
    • the decline of pollinators such as bees, birds, bats, butterflies, and beetles which are intrinsic to the propagation of flowering plants
  86. major zoonotic viral disease vectors
    • arthropods: mosquitoes, ticks
    • mammals: rodents, bats
  87. flavivirus phylogeny and classification
    • enveloped, spherical
    • positive stranded ssRNA
    • classification: nucleotide sequence, antigenicity, pathogenicity, geographic distribution, ecological association
  88. prevalence and vector biology of west nile virus
    • vector: mosquito
    • prevalence: all over US
  89. dengue
    • vector: mosquito
    • Prevalence: 2/5 of world's population at risk yearly
  90. clinical aspects of flavivirus infection: WNV
    • most people do not develop clinical illness or symptoms
    • symptoms: fever, headache, fatigue, skin rash on trunk of body, swollen lymph glands, eye pain
    • severe disease: west nile meningitis, west nile encephalitis and west nile polimelitis
  91. clinical aspects of flavivirus infection: dengue
    symptoms: splitting headaches, retro-orbital pain, myalgia/athralgia, rash hemorrhagic manifestation, leukpenia, maculpalar rash appears on the trunk arms legs
  92. rabies
    • 95% of deaths occur in Asia and Africa
    • most human deaths follow a bite from an infected dog. 30% to 60% of dog bites are children under age of 15
    • once the signs and symptoms of rabies start to appear, there is way to no treatment and the disease is almost always fatal
    • vaccinating animals is the best way to prevent rabies in people
  93. lyme disease
    • lab test to determine if infected ELISA or IFA and western blot
    • black legged ticks
    • circular rash
    • loss of muscle tone int he face, headaches, neck stiffness, shooting pains, hart palpitations, arthritis and flu symptoms
  94. plague
    • yersinia pestis
    • contracted by being bitten by a rodent flea
    • antibiotics are effective if infection is caught early
  95. malaria
    • plasmodium spp
    • 2 hosts in life cycle
    • parasite lives in human blood cells  and causes them to stick next to the insides of blood vessels
  96. malaria and sickle cell anemia
    people with sickle cell anemia have a reduced chance of serious malaria infection
  97. disaster
    a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources
  98. emergency
    if a disruptive even does not exceed a community's or society's capacity to cope it is classified as an emergency
  99. disaster consequences
    • loss of life
    • injury
    • disease
    • other negative effects on mental and social well being
    • property damage, assets, economic disruption and environmental degregation
  100. disaster impact
    the severity of the consequences
  101. conditions that promote disasters
    • exposure o an environmental hazard
    • conditions of vulnerability
    • insufficient capacity or measures to reduce or cope with consequences
  102. classification of hazards and disasters
    • natural hazards: further classified as meteorological or geophysical
    • technological: include those that are toxic, thermal or mechanical
  103. incidence of environmental disasters
    • increasing world wide
    • floods 32%
    • transport accidents 23%
    • windstorms 10%
  104. disaster risk management
    • risk assessment
    • risk management
  105. primary prevention
    seeks to prevent adverse events from occuring
  106. secondary prevention
    environmental disaster risk includes mitigation measures
  107. structural measures of prevention
    modification of physical environment through architectural design , engineering controls, and construction methods and materials in order to prevent hazard exposure
  108. nonstructural measures of prevention
    land use strategies, policies, laws and public awareness raising, training and education.
  109. mitigation
    serves to reduce population vulnerability by reducing population exposure as well as susceptibility to disaster hazards
Card Set:
CHS 230 Final
2013-05-13 06:07:55
environmental health

environmental health final
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