the sciences ch 1

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greatestever
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21861
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the sciences ch 1
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2010-06-06 16:27:32
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why study science
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science as we know it
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  1. why study science?
    1. 50% of political questions involve science and technology. 2. useful technology, alternating current, needs to be understood and controlled. 3. science provides interesting explanation about the world around us. 4. less fear and less cruelty, more rational explanation about life, medicine, weather.
  2. what is science?
    1. science is a collection of date. 2) must have theories expressed by authority 3) based on physical evidence and on reason 4) first hand evidence
  3. what is the scientific method?
    is the process that can be followed to obtain scientific knowledge. (data/observation/experiments), identifying patterns, hypothesis, and prediction
  4. what is data?
    the physical observation found through experiement and observation. a scientist sets up a test by manipulating the behavior of the universe and observes. scientist passively record what the universe is always doing.
  5. what is identifying patterns?
    the universe is chaotic, the process of identifying patterns in the data can lead us to theories about how the universe behaves
  6. what is hypothesis?
    is an educated guess based on the patterns that have been identified in the data.
  7. what is prediction?
    science is not the final answer, nor is it the ultimate truth. instead, it is a way of producing descriptions that allow us to predict more of the behavior of that world with higher and higher levels of confidence.
  8. who is Dimitri Mendeleev?
    If if if the popular chemistry professor at the technological institute of st. Petersburg in Russia, experienced such a breakthrough in 1869 as he was tabulating data for a new chemistry text book.
  9. How did Dimitri create the periodic table?
    If in an effort to consolidate the current state of knowledge about the most basic chemical building blocks, Dmitri listed various properties of the 63 known chemical elements. He arranged his list in order of increasing atomic weight and then noted the distinctive chemical behavior of each element.
  10. How were elements arranged?
    Elements with similar Chemical Properties appeared at regular or periodic intervals. One group of elements, including lithium, sodium, potassium, and rubidium, all were soft, silvery metals that forms compounds with chlorine in a 1 to 1 ratio. Immediately following the group one elements in the list were early on, magnesium, calcium, and barium -group - two elements that form compounds with chlorine in a 1 to 2 ratio, and so on.
  11. What did the elements as patterns show?
    As similar patterns emerge from his list, Mendeleev realized that the elements could be arranged in the form of a table. Highlighting unrecognized relationships among the elements, also revealing gaps were as - yet undiscovered elements must lie.
  12. Who is William Harvey?
    Any English Physician that gave us our current picture of the pattern of circulation, in which blood is pumped from the heart to all parts of the body through arteries, and return to the heart through veins. His experiments reveal the scientific method at work.
  13. How do Harvey use the scientific method to discover the bloods circulation?
    M Harvey first performed care for dissection of animals to trace the route the veins and arteries. Second, he undertook studies of live animals often killing them so that he could observe the veins and arteries as the heart stopped beating. Then, as now, animals were sometimes sacrificed to advance medical science.
  14. What other experiment did Harv use to discover blood circulation?
    A turn make was applied to a subjects on, and he was asked to squeeze something so that the veins failed with blood and popped. Harv wind and press down on the vain and note that they would subside on the side toward the heart. This result is just the opposite of what would occur if blood were flowing from that liver to the and extremities.
  15. Watts is pseudoscience?
    A false science. For example, astrology, flying saucers, medical quackery, Bigfoot, ETC. . .
  16. Five Questions to ask to prove pseudoscience
    Are facts true as stated? 2. Is they are in alternate explanation? 3. Is that claim falsified? 4. Has the claim been tested? 5. do claims require unreasonable changes in accepting ideas?
  17. Astrology
    Historically the order lines of a motion of objects in the sky became the first physical behavior studied in a scientific manner
  18. Astronomy was important to ancient cultures
    Keep track of the season's gathering food and agriculture, avocation by sun and stars over large bodies of water, such as to Mediterranean Sea, and oceans, religion for the timing of rituals, the Sonal eclipse and lunar eclipse
  19. What is astrology?
    Is that the position of objects in the sky at a given time (a person's birth for example) influence the person's future.
  20. How to test astrology
    Have a member of the class take the horoscopes from yesterday's newspaper and type them on a sheet of paper without indicating which was gold goes with which sign. Then ask members of the class to indicate or scope their best matches the day they actually had. Have them write their birthday on the paper as well.
  21. explain why scientist do not consider astrology to be scientific, according to the scientific method
    astrology predicts that if one is born on a certain date, one's entire life can be predicted. who oone is and what one will become can, supposedly, be found through astrology. this is a false science and can be proved to be false by using the scientific method. form the hypothesis that two different people, born on the same day, will have the same life. then, predict that they will have the same life, collect the data, and identify the patterns and the results will be that the two people turn out to have different lives; making astrology a pseudoscience. the patterns and data will not be the same.
  22. explain how dimitri mendeleev used the scientific method to construct the perioduc table of the elements
    mendeleev listed 63 of the known chemical elements. he arranged his list in order of increasing atomic weight and then noted the distrinctive chemical behavior of each element. he realized a pattern: elements with similar chemical properties appeared at regular, or periodic, intervals. as similar patterns emerged form hhid lidy, mendeleev realized that the elements could be arranged in the form of a table.
  23. describe the role of preconception
    scientist are not required to observe nature with an open mind, with no preconception about what hey are going to find. scientist have to believe the results of their observations and experiments, whether or not they fit preconcieved notions.
  24. how are oFbservations different from experiments
    there is no control of an observation. to elaborate, scientist cannot manipulate how the universe will act when they are observing what is happening. in an experiment, scientist manipulate the universe to act a certain way.
  25. What was Stonehenge?
    it served as a giant calendar based on the movement of objects in the sky.the most famous astronomical function of Stonehenge was to mark the passage of the season's.
  26. Who was john snow?
    He discovered Cholera breaks he pioneered the use of Addis that it's and assisted at the birth of Queen Victoria's children. If you notice that in London in the disease's seemed to be centered around certain public squares. Apply this edition, still found that the score was surrounded by a large number of homes we're human waste was dumped into a backyard pits.
  27. Claudius Ptolemy
    In the ptolemaic description of the universe, earths sat unmoved at the center. Around it, on the concentric series of rotating spheres, moved stars and planets. The model was carefully crafted to take account of observations. The planets, for example, were attached to small spheres rolling inside of the larger spheres so that their uneven motion across the sky could be understood.
  28. Nicholas Copernicus
    In the ptolemaic description of the universe, earths sat unmoved at the center. Around it, on the concentric series of rotating spheres, moved stars and planets. The model was carefully crafted to take account of observations. The planets, for example, were attached to small spheres rolling inside of the larger spheres so that their uneven motion across the sky could be understood.
    In the ptolemaic description of the universe, earths sat unmoved at the center. Around it, on the concentric series of rotating spheres, moved stars and planets. The model was carefully crafted to take account of observations. The planets, for example, were attached to small spheres rolling inside of the larger spheres so that their uneven motion across the sky could be understood.
  29. tycho brahe
    Discovered the supernova star this discovery challenged the prevailing wisdom that the heavens are unchanging. He also improved conservation no instruments. He determine the position of each star or planet with the quadrant. A large sloping device something like a gun sight, recording each position as two angles.
  30. Johannes kepler
    Discovered the supernova star this discovery challenged the prevailing wisdom that the heavens are unchanging. He also improved conservation no instruments. He determine the position of each star or planet with the quadrant. A large sloping device something like a gun sight, recording each position as two angles.
    Analyzed Tyco's decades of planetary camera in new ways, and he found that the data can be summarized in three Mathematical statements about the solar system. Capers first and most important law states that all planets, including earth, orbit the sun in elliptical, not circular, paths.
  31. Galileo galilei
    He invented many practical devices, such as the first to monitor, the pendulum clock, and the proportional compass that draftsman still used today. Galileo is also famous as the first person to record observations of the heavens with the telescope, which she built after hearing of the instrument others. His astronomical writings, which supported the suns center Capornican model of the universe, led to this trial, conviction, and eventual imprisonment by the inquisition.
  32. Speed equation
    Velocity or speed (m/s) = distance traveled/time of travel
  33. Acceleration
    acceleration = v2 - v1 / time

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