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  1. Systems  Theory
    Systems theory sees organizations one element in a system of interdependent elements. The organization takes inputs or resources from the environment, processes them through organizational actions, and then returns them to the environment as outputs. Effectiveness then becomes the ability of outputs to create the desired environmental outcomes.
  2. Values
     Values are the conscious desires and wants of people that guide their behaviors. Values represent society’s ideas about what is right or wrong, are passed on from one generation to the next, and are communicated through education systems, religion, families, organizations, and communities. Organizations are able to operate efficiently only when employees share values.
  3. Organizational culture
     Edgar Shein defined Organizational culture as a pattern of basic assumptions, discovered or developed by a group as it learns to cope with the problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. The more employees share and accept the core values of an organization, the stronger the organizational culture and the more influential it is on behavior.
  4. Organizational cultural resistance to change
     Cultures are elusive, hidden and difficult to diagnose. They sustain people through periods of difficulty and provide continuity and stability, thus people will naturally resist change. Changing a culture requires a major commitment of resources and an influential and powerful leader (transformational). Deliberate attempts at cultural change are not practical because of the requirements of difficult techniques, rare skills, and time.
  5. Cultural change model
     One of the most effective ways of changing people’s beliefs and values is to first change their behaviors. Managers must get people to see the inherent worth of behaving in a new way, that is justify the behavior. Communication techniques such as announcements, memos, rituals, stories, dress, and artifacts are useful in motivating and justifying new behaviors. Culture is changed with the socialization of new members through the transmittal of values, assumptions, and attitudes from older to new members. Ultimately, deviants from the culture have to be removed. 
  6. careerstage model of socialization
     The career stage model of socialization begins with anticipatory socialization. At this stage, recruitment using realistic job previews, selection and placement using realistic career paths, and the advancement of organizational information begins the process of socialization. In the accommodation stage, the employee begins to see the organization for what it is; he establishes new interpersonal relationships with coworkers and supervisors (social), learns the tasks of the job (skills training) clarifying his role in the organization (challenging work assignments) and evaluating progress toward satisfying job demands (organizational feedback). The final stage, role management, the employee learns how to manage the conflict between work, home, and between work groups (counseling is provided and flexible work scheduling). 
  7. person-organizationfit
     The extent to which a person’s values and personality are perceived to fit the culture of the organization is the person-organization fit. Employees who fit well with an organization are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs, coworkers, supervisors, and committed to the organization and less likely to quit. 
  8. Perceptual grouping
     Perceptual grouping occurs as individuals categorize and group stimuli into common patterns. Stereotyping occurs as a perceptual process in which people classify or categorize events, other people, or situations into groups as a mechanism for dealing with large amounts of information. Prejudice is a stereotype that refuses to change when presented with information that the stereotype is inaccurate. Scapegoating is an extreme form of prejudice in which a person or group is blamed for the actions of others or for a condition not of their making. 
  9. Describe the Halo effect and similar to me errors as they relate to perceptual grouping
     A halo effect occurs in perception when a person allows one important factor or characteristic to bias his view, impression, of evaluation or a person place or thing. Similar to me errors occurs when a person uses himself as the benchmark against which he judges others. Perceptions are also heavily influenced by individual needs and other situational factors such as time. 
  10. Described emotional labor
    Emotional Labor occurs as people attempt to manage their emotions for compensation. People experience emotional labor when they attempt to manage or modify their emotions based on organizational expectations. It can be experienced though empathy as they feel for others in less fortunate circumstances and contributes to stress and burnout in the individual. Emotional labor is experienced more by people in work setting that have a high frequency of negative events.
  11. Describe emotional intelligence and its 2 prominent themes
     Emotional intelligence involves the ability to have empathy and show sensitivity to the feelings of others while being self aware and maintaining self-control. There are two prevailing themes in EI. First is the Salovey Mayer theme which emphasizes the individual capacity to perceive emotion in others, to integrate emotions with purposeful thought and actions, and to manage emotions effectively. Daniel Goleman argued that we have two brains, two minds, and two different types of intelligence- rational and emotional. The balanced management of emotions determines how intelligently a person acts and how successful he or she will be in life. 
  12. What are the 3 determinants of job performance and the 3 components of motivation
     There are three determinants of job performance: (1) capacity to perform, (2) opportunity to perform, and (3) willingness to perform (motivation). There are three components of motivation: (1) direction relates to what an individual chooses to do when presented with a number of possible alternatives, (2) intensity refers to the strength of the response once the direction is selected, and (3) persistence relates to the staying power of behavior or how long a person will continue to develop effort. 
  13. Describe Herzberg's 2 factor theory of motivation
     Content Theory: Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation identifies intrinsic and extrinsic needs of individuals. Extrinsic conditions result in dissatisfaction among employees when they are not present and intrinsic conditions build strong levels of motivation that results in good performance when they are present. Extrinsic motivators include pay, status, job security and intrinsic motivators relate to the feeling of achievement, meaningful work, and opportunities for advancement and growth. 
  14. Describe Victor Vroom's expectancy theory
    Process Theory: Expectancy theory is a theory of motivation that suggests that employees are more likely to be motivated when they perceive their efforts will result in successful performance and, ultimately, desired rewards and outcomes. Instrumentality is the perception by an individual that performance will result in rewards. Valence refers to the preferences for the rewards. Expectancy refers the individual’s belief regarding the likelihood or subjective probability that a particular behavior will result in a particular reward. 
  15. Describe exchange theory
     Exchange theory suggests that members of an organization engage in reasonable predictable give and take relationships (exchanges) with each other. Schein suggests that the degree to which employees are willing to exert effort, commit to organizational goals, and derive satisfaction from the work depends on the extent to which employee expectations of exchange matches the organizations expectations of exchange – what each expects to give and receive (exchange) from each other – effort for pay or loyalty for job security.
  16. Connect the psychological contract and exchange theory
     Mutual expectations constitute a psychological contract; an implicit agreement between the individual and the organization of what will be given and received by each. These are not static; either party’s expectations can change regarding their willingness or ability to continue meeting expectations. A breach of the contract occurs when the employee perceives that the organization has failed to fulfill the agreement; this is often associated with negative motivational consequences.
  17. Describe job enlargement
     Job enlargement relates to the concept developed by Walker and Guest in their 1952 study on the improvement of motivation and job satisfaction in the assembly line worker; they found a positive relationship between job range and job satisfaction. Their work supports early motivational theories that predict that increases in job range increase job satisfaction. Job enlargement focuses on despecialization or increasing the number of tasks that an employee performs. Some employees cannot cope with enlarged jobs due to an inability to comprehend complexity. But where they can handle complexity, they should realize increases in satisfaction and product quality and decreases in absenteeism and turnover. 
  18. Describe job enrichment
     Job enrichment refers to designing job depth – Herzberg’s two factor theory – which argues that factors that meet individual needs for psychological growth should be characteristic of the job – direct changes in job depth or the amount of discretion an individual has to decide job activities and job outcomes. Enrichment is more useful for employees with a high need for self-esteem and self-actualization (high need for growth). 
  19. Describe transactional leadership
     Transactional leadership involves helping the follower identify what must be done to accomplish the desired results, ensuring that employees have the resources needed to complete the job, and consideration of the employee’s self-concept and esteem needs. The transactional approach uses path-goal concepts as its framework and adjusts goals, direction, and mission for practical reasons. Transactional leadership uses contingent rewards and management by exception – followers believe that accomplishing objectives will result in receiving desired rewards – leaders will not get involved unless goals are not being accomplished.
  20. Describe transformational leadership
     Transformational leadership motivates followers to work for goals instead of short term self-interests and for achievement and self actualization instead of security. The transformational approach is viewed as a special case of transactional leadership where the employee reward is internal. The transformational leader will charismatically overhaul the entire organizational philosophy, system, and culture to achieve his vision; the vision provides the follower with the motivation for hard work that is self-rewarding.
  21. The elements of division of labor – 3
     Division of labor concerns the extent to which jobs are specialized or divided into specific tasks or activities: (1) personal specialties such as accountants, engineers, physicians, lifeguards etc…; (2) natural sequence of work or horizontal specialization; and (3) vertical plane relating to the hierarchy of authority. 
  22. Describe the concept of authority delegation and reasons for decentralization and centralization
    Delegation of authority refers the process by which authority (decision making) is distributed downward in an organization. Organizations that decentralize authority enable managers to make significant decision, gain skills, and advance in the company. Decentralization also leads to a competitive organizational climate by which the motivation to contribute is intensified and individual performance is stimulated. It also promotes autonomy in decision making and increased job satisfaction by virtue of enrichment (Herzberg). Organizational authority is centralized to reduce the costs of management training associated with delegated authority. Centralization also occurs because managers often resist delegation of authority out of fear of losing control. Finally, centralization occurs because decentralization often results in the duplication of functions and higher costs. 
  23. Describe functional departmentalization
     Functional departmentalization occurs when managers combine jobs according to the functions of the organization. The principal advantage of the functional basis is its efficiency. Departments consisting of experts in a particular field create efficient units than can share expertise to get the work done. Departmentalization can also occur by geographic location, product, and customer. 
  24. What are the structural dimensions of organizational design
     Organizational Design is based on the structural dimensions of complexity, horizontal differentiation, and vertical differentiation. The mechanistic model advanced by Max Weber and Henry Fayol achieves maximum benefits through (1) the division of all tasks into highly specified jobs, (2) tasks are performed in strict accordance with rules and procedures to achieve uniformity and consistency, (3) organizational members or offices are accountable to only one manager, (4) organizational members maintain informal distances with coworkers and clients, and (5) employment is based on technical qualifications and is protected from arbitrary dismissal. This model is highly complex because it emphasizes specialization, it is highly centralized because it emphasizes authority, and it is highly formalized because it emphasizes function as the basis for departments. 
  25. Organizational Behavior reference
     Ivancevich, J., Konopaske, R., and Matteson, M. (2011). Organizational Behavior and Management. (9th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill
  26. Describe a Budget
    A budget is a document or a collection of documents that refers to the financial condition and future plans of an organization. It is prospective in nature referring to anticipated future revenues, expenditures, and accomplishments
  27. Describe 3 conceptions of a Budget
    •  Descriptions of an organizations status relative to what it purchases, what it does, and what it accomplishes. It provides a discrete picture of an organization at a point in time in terms of resources consumes, work performed, and external effects.
    • Explanations of causal relationships in relation to the purchase of labor and materials that will be combined with particular work activities to produce the desired outcomes or results.
    • Preferences of those making budget allocations are expressed in the budget document. These are often thought of as the collective preferences of many decision makers arrived at through complex bargaining. It identifies political priorities (Gordon & Milakovich, 2001). 
  28. Two types of decision-making information produced by budgets
    •  Program information refers to the accounting for results. The organizations goals and objectives are the measuring instruments in determining if results are adequate.
    • Resource information refers to monetary representations and accounting for the resources used by the organization
  29. Three types of budgetary decision-making
    • Rational decision making refers to the notion that all of an organization and society’s goals and desires are known and ranked. All possible alternatives and their consequences are identified, and the alternative with the highest payoff or the least cost is selected based on the information.
    • Incrementalism refers to the concept promoted by Lindblom and Wildavsky that decision-making involves a conflict of interests and corresponding clash of information which result in accommodation of diverse partisan interests through bargaining. It is a process of incrementally adjusting existing practices to establish or reestablish consensus among interests.
    • Limited (bounded) rationality (Herbert Simon) refers to a compromise between rational decision making and incrementalism that recognizes the limits of human information gathering and processing and advocates for the search for alternative solutions that are satisfactory but not necessarily optimal. Limited rationality suggests that large forces are marshaled at times for major change, and incremental adjustments are made at other times for issues that do not generate demand for substantial departure from the status quo. 
  30. Budget reference
     Lee, R. D., Johnson, R. W., & Joyce, P. G. (2008). Public Budgeting Systems (8 ed.). Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.
  31. Describe the four phases of the budget cycle
    • Preparation and submission typically occurs at the chief executive level (President, Governor, and Mayor) but can also be the responsibility of a range of actors. It tends to be highly fragmented to organizational units within line agencies submitting narrowly focused requests. 
    • Approvals are made by the legislative body (congress, state legislature, county commission) after review of the executive’s budget recommendations and agency budget documents.
    • Execution commences with the beginning of the fiscal year and funds are made available for operations through the processes of apportionment and allotment, withheld by impoundment, or delayed by preaudit procedures.
    • Audit /Evaluation guarantees executive compliance with the provisions of appropriations bill, particularly to ensure honesty in dispensing public money to prevent waste.
  32. Describe the budgetary use of program information
    •  Budget systems are making increased use of Program Information. This term relates to performance measurement and management as a means of holding agencies accountable for the expenditure of tax dollars and other public resources.
    • Social indicators measure the physical, social, and economic environments to reflect quality of life. E.g., unemployment broken down by age, sex, and race.
    • Activities and workload refer to the work that is done to produce outputs.
    • Outputs
    • Outcomes
    • Productivity refers to all forms of output, workload, efficiency…etc.
    • Need refers to the need for a program which can be established by the measurement of social indicators.
  33. Describe the performance-based budget
    •  Performance Based Budget is a method of budgeting widely used at the local levels in the US as part of a broader strategic planning initiative.
    • Connects programmatic spending and performance to the priorities of the organization as established by its mission, goals, and objectives and holding management accountable.
    • Requires the measurement, interpretation and reporting of performance information. This is a reflection of the values of the NPR and GRRA.
    • Requires the development of performance data related to outputs and immediate outcomes. Benchmarking
    • Focuses on results rather than on measures of workload or programmatic activities. 
  34. Describe the ethical decision-making model
    •  Begins with the perception that and ethical problem exists.
    • The descriptive task is to describe the situation as objectively as possible using language that attempts to frame the situation in non-value terms – as it is seen.
    • Defining the ethical issue of competing ethical principles or values embedded in the practical problem - Conflicting loyalties, fiduciary responsibilities, honesty… etc.
    • Identifying alternative courses of action
    • Project the probable consequences
    • Finding a fit through achieving balance between the following four considerations:
    • Moral rules
    • Ethical principles
    • Rehearsal of defenses refers to the “60 Minutes test”
    • Anticipatory self-appraisal refers to how well the selected alternative fits with our own self image.
    • By using the model, we achieve a greater degree of ethical autonomy because we become aware of our own values and the external obligations under which we act.
  35. Describe the context of public administration in modern and postmodern terms
    •  Modern is a global term for describing the social, cultural and economic attributes associated with urban industrial society. Key phenomena of the modern society are bureaucracy and technological production. Science, logic, and order are used to establish absolutes in the social, economic, and cultural spheres of modern life.
    • Postmodern is a term intended to characterize a world in which foundational assumptions are discredited as final and absolute. Assumptions about universal human nature, natural law, absolute values or ultimate truths, including those of science, no longer hold sway over the entire society. The result is a system of normlessness and a conclusion that anything goes because no one has a basis for claims to moral rectitude and obligation.
    • The relativity of values in the postmodern world threatens to undermine any belief in obligation and duty. Thus, the intentional social construction of public life is essential as the basis for social stability. 
  36. Describe administrative responsibility and its primary components
    •  Responsibility is the key concept in developing an ethic for the administrative role.
    • Objective responsibility refers to expectations imposed from outside ourselves. Administrators are most immediately responsible to their organizational superiors for carrying out their directives. Most proximal accountability due to frequency of reporting. Administrators are responsible to elected officials for carrying out their wishes as embodied in public policies. Less proximal due to infrequent or less frequent reporting. Paul Appelby - far from being the docile submissive implementer, the function of an administrator was to complicate the lives of his political masters at least to the extent they did not resolve complex issues on the basis of disingenuously simple criteria. Administrators are responsible to the citizenry for discerning, understanding, and weighing their preferences, demands, and other interests. Least frequent in terms of accountability but the most fundamental relationship of obligation due to the fiduciary nature of the relationship. 
    • Subjective responsibilities concern those things for which we feel a responsibility. Subjective responsibility is rooted in our own beliefs about loyalty, conscience, and identification. It reflects the kind of professional ethic developed through personal experience. It is based on the values that serve as the primary imperative to action and the standard that guides those actions.
  37. Describe 3 conflicts of responsibility
    • Conflicts of authority represented by two or more opposing objective responsibilities imposed by two or more sources of authority.
    • Role conflicts occur as an administrator experiences values associated with particular roles as incompatible or mutually exclusive. E.g., being asked to do something as an administrator that is incompatible with my role as a father. Value subsystems emerge around our roles; the more roles we assume, the more values we have to keep in harmony.
    • Conflicts of interest involve situations where our own personal interests are at odds with our obligations as public officials or our professional values. The ethical problem presented by these conflicts is that our fiduciary role as trustees of the public interest may be jeopardized by a loss of trust in our professional judgment. 
  38. Describe external controls for maintaining responsible conduct in organizations
    • External Controls (Herman Finer, 1936) refer to the concept that only the set of legal and institutional controls that rest in the hands of the governed can be viewed as producing responsible conduct.
    • The mastership of the public requires that both politicians and public employees work for what the public wants, rather than their perception of what the public needs.
    • The mastership needs institutions with a centrally located elected organ.
    • Public mastership includes not only the ability to inform government of what it wants, but also the power to exact obedience to orders.
    • The responsible administrator must be subject to the external political controls implied by these doctrines through:
    • Ethics legislation – rooted ultimately in the law that constrains administrative flexibility and discretion in decision making to the will of the people. They establish a moral minimum. Laws provide sanction for exceeding established limits. They provide a means for setting negative examples. They are lacking in specificity, difficult to enforce due to loopholes and evidentiary requirements, and enforcement may erode government employee morale.
    • Codes of ethics can go much farther than legislation in projecting ideals, norms and obligations and can establish an ethical status to which members of a profession aspire -  moral optimum rather than moral minimum. Often vague and abstract and have weak if any enforcement mechanisms.
  39. Describe internal controls for maintaining responsible conduct in organizations
    • Internal Controls (Carl Fredrich, 1940) refers to the notion that responsibility is a psychological factor, a feeling, a sense of responsibility to a transcendental ideal as well as a factor of public sentiment.
    • Recognizes that administrators are invariably involved in politics and policy making.
    • Recognizes the necessity for some form of political control over the bureaucracy but also recognizes the inadequacy of external controls alone.
    • Acknowledges the importance of professional standards, techniques, and internal values in enhancing responsible conduct.
    • Advantages: values are internalized and are always present in a decision situation, they provide a sense of self confidence in exercising judgments
    • Problems: not completely reliable and can produce judgments that are self-serving, their internal nature prevents public review, there is a possibility for conflict between values.
  40. Describe the components of responsible conduct in the organization
    •  Individual attributes
    • Ethical decisionmaking skill
    • Mental attitude
    • Virtues
    • Professional values
    • Organizational culture
    • Exemplars
    • Norms for conduct
    • Symbols
    • Societal expectations
    • Public participation
    • Laws and policies
    • Organizational structure
    • Clear accountability
    • Collaborative arrangements
    • Dissent channels
    • Participation procedures
  41. Ethics reference
    Cooper, T. (2006). The Responsible Administrator (5 ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  42. Public personnel management reference
    Nigro, F., Nigro, L., & Kellough, J. (2007). The New Public Personnel Administration (6 ed.). Boston: Wadsworth.
  43. Competing values in public personnel management
    • Instrumental goals such as efficiency and effectiveness have emerged as competing values in personnel management. 
    • Merit relates to deeply held value that only those who have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to competently do the job should be hired or promoted.
    • Political responsiveness requires that the preferences of elected officials their appointees should weigh heavily on human resources decisions; it makes the bureaucracy more sensitive to the desires of elected officials than those of career managers.
    • Social equity values the use of hiring practices to help disadvantaged groups in hiring and promotion.
    • Employee rights and well being values the idea that employees enjoy certain protections in their employment like due process before removal from office.
  44. Civil service reform 1
    • Patronage hiring was the standard practice during most of the 1800s. It relied heavily on the idea that democratic government requires a civil service that is highly responsive to public opinion and electoral mandates.
    • The Pendleton act of 1883 established the legislative foundation for a basic merit system that was based on the concepts of (1) competitive examinations, (2) political neutrality by employees, and (3) relative security of tenure – meaning employees could only be fired for malfeasance, not for political reasons.
    • The act was implemented under the Civil Service Commission and focused on regulation.
  45. Civil service reform 2
    • CSR2 refers to efforts to better align personnel practices with the day-to-day needs of public managers, improvement of public employee performance, and to improve the responsiveness of the bureaucracy to the executive leadership.
    • An important feature was its emphasis on improving the control of the chief executive and public managers over the personnel function.
    • The Civil service Reform Act of 1978 abolished the Civil Service Commission and established the OPM in its place. The OPM director reports directly to the POTUS and the Merit Systems Protection Board performs a watchdog function over federal agencies.
    • The CSRA established the Senior Executive service which ranks the employees in person rather than job or position.
    • The CSRA also focused on enhancing organizational performance and responsiveness by promoting managerial flexibility in HR issues.
  46. Describe Position analysis as an HRM technique
    • Position analysis is the process of specifying the characteristics, duties, and the KSAs necessary to do a specific job. The result is a job or position description.
    • Job descriptions become outdated and inaccurate as technology, organizational structure, and demands placed on jobs change – necessitating routine maintenance by job analysis.
    • Job descriptions are used to set pay, orient new employees, develop performance standards, and for deciding on training courses.
    • Analysis can be conducted by anyone who knows the facts about the position. Position facts can be gained from the employee doing the job through direct interviews or questionnaires, the supervisor overseeing the job, and desk audits.
    • Whole job/ranking requires the personnel specialist to read job descriptions and subjectively place them in rank order from most important to least. This method relies on the unstructured judgment of the analyst.
    • Whole job/classification requires comparison of the job description to evaluation standards and descriptions of pay grades; the job is placed into the pay grade that best matches the jobs duties and responsibilities. Less subjective than whole job/ranking.
    • Factor based / factor point requires that the job be broken down into compensable factors for purposes of evaluation and the presence of those factors are compared with predetermined standards. This is the least subjective method.
  47. Describe Job classification as an HRM technique
    • Position classification is the process of establishing occupational categories for jobs with similar responsibilities and duties. This is an important activity because it determines pay.
    • Jobs with similar duties and responsibilities were required to be grouped into pay classifications by the Classifications Act of 1923. The logic of the act was to establish a mechanism supporting the concept of equal pay for equal work.
    • The act was amended in 1949 to give OPM responsibility over the classification system and decentralize the activity of classification on individual classification to the agencies.
    • Most agencies use the factor evaluation system adopted by the Civil Service Commission in 1975 which uses the following criteria to determine grades: (1) education, (2) supervisory responsibilities, (3) nature of decisions, and (4) the consequences of errors.
    • Classification analysts grade the positions by determining the appropriate level (points) for each factor. The sum of the factor points is then converted to a GS grade.
    • National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) argues that the job classification should achieve two goals: (1) Support efforts to treat job applicants in an equitable and impartial manner. This reflects the CSR1 values of regulation and policing the HR related activities of managers.(2) Promote effective and efficient agency performance. This reflects the contemporary values of CSR2 where HR functions are conducted within the context of an agency’s budget, information accounting system, and other systems that enhance the management process.
  48. Describe performance management (appraisal) as a technique of HRM management
    • A performance management system is used to evaluate an employee and guide better performance in the future. The employee performance evaluation is the primary tool of the system. It is instrumental in the following activities: (1) It is strategic in gauging the strengths and weaknesses of the entire work force. (2) It validates job tests. Higher performance should manifest in higher scores. (3) Merit pay increases, promotion, demotion, dismissal, and determining who will be laid off. (4) Individual employee development.
    • The Performance Rating Act of 1950 provided for three possible performance ratings; outstanding, satisfactory, and unsatisfactory. Unsatisfactory was grounds for summary dismissal and outstanding required heavy supervisory investments. As such, the GAO found that 95% of all ratings in the federal system between 1954 and 1978 were satisfactory. Appraisals of the time were based on traits such as courtesy and adaptability and considered a backwater of public personnel management. This approach was falling out of favor in the late 1970s.
    • The CSRA of 1978 emphasized employee appraisals based on job elements rather than traits. Attached to each job element were statements of quantity and quality required to perform a job – performance standards.
    • In its report to 1983 Repot to OPM, the National Research Council concluded that the degree to which an appraisal system contributes to the performance process depends on the level of investment in (1) a commitment to supervisory training and employee development, (2) active and informed participation of supervisors and employees in setting standards and development goals, (3) the use of fair and objective performance measures, and (4) a visible commitment to procedural fairness at all levels of the rating process.
  49. Describe strategic human resources methods for attracting human resources
    • Competitive Strategy - stresses acquiring human resources by doing better in the relevant labor market in terms of pay and benefits, higher organizational prestige, and internal flexibility needed to make adjustments in changing markets. These things are difficult for public organizations to accomplish due to CSR1 values and merit system constraints.
    • Cooperative Strategy – involves entering into mutually beneficial agreements with other organizations and resource-controlling actors in the environment. Two cooperative strategies: (1) Intergovernmental joint ventures – pool or share personnel or other capacities between organizations. This increases the qualitative and quantitative effectiveness of participating agencies and reduces per unit costs. (2) Contracting with private organizations lowers the costs of services through competition. It is an attractive strategy because (A) competition lowers costs, (B) it increases administrative flexibility allowing managers to refocus on performance management and the contract can be terminated or reoriented without having to go through reduction in force processes, and (C) has a symbolic political value of reducing the size of government and supporting private businesses.
    • Incorporation strategies exploit in-house training and employee development through organization specific educational programs when the external environment cannot provide the necessary human capital. The benefit is that control over employee skills development that is specific to organizational needs is maintained in house.
  50. Describe Labor Relations as a technique of human resources management
    • Labor relations reflect the different difference in power and the resulting conflict between management and organized labor. Collective bargaining is a method of dealing with this conflict in a bilateral way; as opposed to the unilateral way of a merit system.
    • Title VII of the CSRA 1978 establishes a system of labor relations for the federal services which is administrated by the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA). State and local systems are established by state statute, local ordinances, and agency policies. These laws and policies (1) provide public employees with the right to organize and be represented by employee organizations of their own choice, (2) requires public employers to negotiate and enter into agreements with public employee organizations regarding terms and conditions of employment, and (3) creates impasse resolution processes to deal with collective bargaining disputes. Mediation
    • Fact-finding
    • Arbitration - binding
  51. HRM and political activity
    • The Hatch Act was passed in 1939 to prevent the political coercion of employees, assure neutrality, and protect the concept of merit. It prohibited the use of official authority for the purpose of interfering with an election or influencing its result. It prohibited federal employees from taking any active part in poltical management or political campaigns. These prohibitions were extended in 1940 to state and local employees. Clinton signed the Hatch Act Reform Amendments in 1993 reducing the restrictions on political activities for federal employees. State and local activities are restricted to political activities on off-duty time only. But no uniformity across all states exists.
  52. HRM and free speech
    • Pickering v. Board (1968) of Education requires a balancing test o consideration of free speech issues involving public employees. It balances the interest of the employee in participating in public debate and the interest of the agency in effectively performing its legitimate functions.
    • SCOTUS held in McPherson v Rankin (1987) that when speech is a matter of public concern and is not disruptive to the discipline and normal operation of the workplace, it is constitutionally protected.
  53. HRM and the free exercise of religion
    • Ansonia Board of Education v Philbrook required a balancing test to consider the free exercise of religion involving public employees. It required employers to make reasonable accommodation to the religious needs of employees when they can be made without undue hardship.
  54. HRM and privacy
    • O’Connor v Ortega (1987)/ Griswald v Connecticut  (1965) held that public employees retain fourth amendment right when there is a reasonable expectation of privacy.
    • National treasury Union v. Von Raab (1989)upheld that drug-screening was constitutional in public safety positions  because the government interest in drug free public safety officials outweighed individual privacy interests.
  55. Utilization of a program evaluation
    Evaluations are designed around the information needs of the specific stakeholders and decision makers in the issue. An evaluation’s value is judged by its utility – or the degree to which it is meaningful and useful to the intended user. Users must be able to transfer the findings and recommendations of the evaluation to action.
  56. Factors for consideration in tailoring an evaluation
    • Purpose
    • Formative evaluations are intended to help program administrators and staff improve the processes by which the program delivers its services. These types of evaluations are intended to help administrators and planners develop information to help improve the program.
    • Summative evaluations seek to determine if the program is effect to the extent intended and if the programs have been used efficiently and effectively to that end. Typically summative evaluation assist decision makers in making funding and resource allocation decision and provide measures of accountability for the program.
    • Knowledge generation is sometimes the goal of evaluations that seek to illustrate the nature of a problem. These evaluations are targeted at scholars and other interested policy makers and are typically published in scholarly journals and other outlets with specific audiences.
    • Hidden agendas are sometimes the driving force behind evaluations. Where they are, the evaluations have little utility in the broadest sense of measuring a program’s success. They are instead used for public relations purposes, to justify a decision that has already been made, or to delay decisions.
    • Program structure or circumstances
    • Program stage is an important determinant in how a program evaluation will be designed. For new programs, evaluations seek to discover social needs, assess the program’s theory and design, define the characteristics of the targets, express the outcomes the program expects to produce, and efficiency in producing those outcomes. For established programs, evaluations tend to focus on it processes and implementation.
    • Administrative and political context of the program is important in terms of the various accounting perspectives of the relevant stakeholders as they relate to defining the program’s goals and objectives and questions the evaluation seeks to answer. The evaluator I challenged in this regard by trying to facilitate general agreement among the various stakeholders and differing philosophies and political ideologies.
    • Concept and organizational structure considers a programs plan of operation or its program theory. This is an evaluation of the program’s logic that connects its activities and processes to its output. Complex influences such as multiple targets, wide distribution of services, in the involvement and collaboration with other organizations should be considered.
    • Resources available for the evaluation such as personnel, materials, equipment, cooperation from management and staff, expertise, access to program documents, money, and time should also be considered.
  57. Ranges of stakeholder involvement
    • In an independent evaluation, the evaluator is independently responsible for developing the evaluations plan, conducting the evaluation and measurement, and disseminating the evaluations findings and recommendations.
    • In a participatory/collaborative evaluation, the evaluator and other stakeholders participate and collaborate as a team. This maximizes the utility of the evaluation because it ensures the evaluation is responsive to the needs of the specific stakeholders involved. It applies Paton’s participation-utilization design that ensures the information will be specific to stakeholders needs and will be used.
    • Empowerment evaluations are organized with the evaluator participating as a facilitator or consultant to the stakeholders who conduct the evaluation themselves. This arrangement develops evaluation skills in the stakeholders so they can conduct future evaluations themselves.
  58. Two types of program failure
    •  In Implementation failure, the activities and processes of the program are not performed at the levels necessary to produce the intended outcomes. This occurs when no services are produced at all, the wrong services to the targets, services to the wrong targets, no enough service, or excessive service variations across target populations.
    • In theory failure, the processes and activities are performed as planned, but they do not produce the intended outcomes. 
  59. Describe a needs assessment and how it defines target populations
    •  A needs assessment evaluates the characteristics, magnitude, and distribution of a social problem and is typically conducted to determine the need for some type of intervention or program to address the problem.
    • Describing target populations:
    • A population at risk is comprised of targets that are highly likely of developing or have already developed the social condition the program intends to address.
    • A population in need represents a group of persons or units experiencing or having the condition the program seeks to address. 
    • A population in demand is comprised of those experiencing the condition and is willing and able to participate in the program.
  60. Describe a program theory assessment
    •  A program theory assessment evaluates a program’s concept and its design. Questions are focused on how the program intends to bring into being the interventions that address the social problem.
    • An evaluability assessment is used to determine whether the evaluation of a program’s performance can be done with an expectation of meaningful results. It seeks to describe the program’s goals and objectives, how well it is conceptualized, and the stakeholder’s interests in the evaluation findings.
    • To express program theory, the evaluator describes the program’ key components – its impact theory, service utilization, and organizational plans – or the program as it is intended to be.
    • The assessment of program theory compares the programs interventions with the social needs created by the problem the program addresses.
    • A logic model is a schematic representation of a program’s theory. It portrays the sequence of steps required to produce the intended outcomes.
    • A black box evaluation refers to an assessment of a program’s outcomes without consideration of why or what is causing the outcomes. This is often done in the absence of an expressed program theory.
  61. Describe the purpose of monitoring program processes
     Assessment of program processes evaluates the reliability and usefulness of a programs activities, processes, and implementation. 
  62. Describe the components of measuring program outcomes
    •  Outcomes are what the evaluator observes as the change in the characteristic of the target population or social condition without consideration to the program actions that may have influenced the changes.
    • Outputs represent the services delivered to the program targets with consideration given to the program processes and activities by which the outputs were delivered.
    • The necessary characteristics of Outcome Measures:
    • Reliability refers to the extent to which measures produce consistent results when used to measure the same outcomes over time.
    • Validity refers to the degree the measure actually quantifies what it is intended to measure.
    • Sensitivity refers to the extent to which the values change when there is a change in the situation being measured.
    • Indicators are periodic measurements designed to track the status and magnitude of changes over time. 
    • Teach to the test refers to the attention given to a specific indicator by decision makers resulting in program staff prioritizing program activities based on that indicator. 
  63. Describe the components of assessing for program impact
    •  Program impact assessment measures the degree to which the social problem addressed by the program is improved.
    • The randomized field experiment is the best design for impact evaluations when intervention and control groups can be help equivalent in composition, predispositions, and in experiences. The amount of change in the control group represents what would have happened in the intervention group had they not received the program. The difference between intervention and control represents the most credible and statistically valid effects of the program.
    • They cannot always be used because several factors force the evaluator to shift to a design that is simply good enough to produce the needed information. These include ethical considerations and resource constraints.
    • A quasi-experiment design is used in experiments in which targets are not randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. Matching is one procedure by which control groups are constructed. Intervention group is selected first, and then the evaluator selects the control group from those in the population not receiving the intervention. While this method is vulnerable to selection bias, bias can be statistically controlled for if relevant differences between the groups can be assured. 
  64. Describe key elements of measuring for efficiency
    •  A cost-benefit analysis is a type of impact analysis that judges the efficiency of a program and expresses the results in monetary terms. It has several limitations: (1)
    • Measuring all program costs and benefits is difficult to do, especially in ex-ante situations where all calculations of prospective costs are hypothetical in nature. (2) Social programs do not often produce results that can be accurately valued monetarily. In these situations, cost-efficiency analysis provides a more useful analysis in terms of outputs produced relative to the costs of the inputs. 
    • Discounting refers to reducing the costs and benefits that are dispersed through time to a common monetary base be adjusting them to their present values. This is based on the concept that it is better to have a given amount now than in the future or a fixed amount in the future is worth less than in the present. 
    • Ex-ante evaluations are conducted prospectively as a part of the planning and design phase of the program.
    • Ex-post evaluations are retrospective assessments of programs after they have been in place for some time ad are demonstrating effects among their target groups. 
    • Opportunity costs represent the values of opportunities forgone because of the chosen intervention. These can only be estimated by making assumptions about th consequences of alternative investments. 
    • Policy space as it relates to policy significance represents the set of policy alternatives that can garner political support at any given time in a policy climate.
  65. Program evaluation reference
     Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Freeman, H. E. (2004). Evaluation: A Systematic Approach (7 ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  66. Reasons for government involvement in policy
    •  Political reasons reflect a notable shift in public opinion or the rise of a social movement pressing for action. 
    • Moral or ethical reasons reflect the government’s perspective that action is morally right even without public pressure to do so. 
    • Governments react to market failures or when the private market is not efficient by virtue of monopolies, externalities, information failure, and the inability to provide for the public good. Collective good criterion include:
    • Non-excludability refers to the concept that one person or group of people cannot be excluded from consuming the good.
    • Non-rivalry refers to the idea that one person’s consumption of a good does not prevent another from consuming the same good. 
  67. Describe federalism
    • Dual federalism refers to the period in the late 18th and 19th centuries where the functions and responsibilities of each level of government, federal, state, and local were distinct.
    • Cooperative federalism is the more contemporary arrangement where policymaking between national and state governments increased in the 20th century in response to the Great Depression and Roosevelt’s New Deal policies of the 1930s. cooperative federalism is characterized by money provided by the federal government to the states through block grants and categorical grants.
  68. Describe institutionalism
    • Institutionalism refers to the notion that policy is an organizational output, or the product of an institution. Public policy is authoritatively determined, implemented, and enforced by government institutions through executive orders, judicial rulings, and legislative actions. These institutional tools give public policy credibility, legitimacy, universality, and coerciveness.
  69. Describe group theory
    • Group theory suggests that policy is the product of group activity and emerges from the assumption that interaction among groups is the central fact of political life. This construct puts the group as the bridge between the individual and the government and politics as the struggle between groups to influence public policy.
    • A modern variant of group theory is the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) which focuses on the interactions of competing advocacy coalitions within a policy subsystem such as agriculture, telecommunication, defense, and environmental protection. Each consists of formal and informal actors from public and private institutions and different levels of government who share a particular set of beliefs about the policies that government should promote.
  70. Describe the elite theory
    • Elite theory suggests that public policy reflects the preferences of the governing elite. People in general are viewed as passive, apathetic, and ill-informed and only the elite have the resources and the ability to make rational decisions. The role of elites is particularly evident in the influence of sub-governments or issue networks such as agribusiness on farm policy, the defense industry on weapons procurement, and pharmaceutical companies on health policy.
  71. Describe rationalism
    • Rationalism suggests that policy is based on choices that provide the maximum benefit to the maximum number of people in society. It requires that policy actors know all of society’s values and preferences, all of the policy alternatives available, and the consequences of each alternative, and calculate the ratio of costs to benefits of each policy before a final alternative is selected (Gordon & Milakovich, 2001).
  72. Describe incrementalism
    • Incrementalism (Charles Lindblom) suggests that policy is the product of minor variations on previous policies. It recognizes that (1) policy makers cannot make truly rational policy choices, (2) there may be heavy investments (sunk costs) in a particular policy which preclude the sensibility of a radical change, and (3) that incrementalism is politically expedient meaning that agreements come relatively easily (Gordon & Milakovich, 2001).
  73. Describe political systems theory
    • Political systems theory argues that policy is the result of a system of interdependent elements. The political system (government) responds to inputs in the form of public demands or support for a particular policy, program, or service by processing the inputs through decisions, policies, and actions and returning them to the environment as outputs. The outputs are evaluated and returned to the system as demands or support in cyclical fashion.
  74. Describe rational choice theory
    • Rational choice (public choice) theory assumes that individuals are rational actors in decisionmaking and seek to maximize their preferences and self interests. An example is the electoral incentive of legislators to advertise themselves, claim credit, and take positions on issues.
  75. Describe the policy process model
    • Agenda setting refers to how problems are perceived, command attention, and get onto the political agenda. Issues rise to the agenda level at the confluence of three streams of political activity: (1)The problem stream refers to the various bits of information available on the problem, who it affects, and in what ways. (2)The policy stream refers to what might be done about the problem – the possible alternative policies. These are often floated as trial balloons into the policy space to determine their fitness for gaining political support. (3)The political stream refers to the political climate or the public mood reflected in public opinion surveys, elections, and the activity and strength of interest groups.
    • Policy formulation is the stage in the process where policy goals and strategies are designed and drafted – typically occurs through a policy analysis conducted and influenced by formal and informal policy actors.
    • Policy legitimation refers to the mobilization of political support and formal enactment of the policy giving legal force to decisions. It involves the justification or rationales for the policy action within the context of (1) the constitution of existing laws, (2) US political values and culture, and (3) public support.
    • Policy implementation involves providing the institutional resources for putting programs into effect within the bureaucracy implementing them. Successful implementation is based on three activities: (1)Organization is the establishment of resources, offices, and methods for administering the program. (2)Interpretation means translating the program’s language – the plans, directives and regulatory requirements typically found in law – into language that can be understood by those affected by it.  (3)Application refers to the routine provision of services, payments, or programs.
    • Policy and program evaluation refers to the measurement and assessment of program effects in an assessment of whether or not the program is meeting it intended goals and objectives. This is an important activity in the justification of program costs – are the outcomes worth the money evaluation.
    • Policy change refers to the modification of policy goals and means in light of new information (evaluation results) or a shifting political environment.
  76. Describe the instruments of public policy
    • Regulation refers to laws that legislatures enact and the rules bureaucracies adopt that either require or prevent some behavior. Regulations ensure compliance and impose sanctions.
    • Government management refers to the use of direct services or management of resources as instruments of public policy. Education, defense, and public safety are examples of government management because they need to be provided in a certain way.
    • Taxing and spending resents a governments ability to tax and spend to achieve policy goals – the direct payment of money to citizens (social security, welfare), promote certain activities (home buying through mortgage interest deduction), and discourage certain activities (tobacco taxes).
    • Market mechanisms through non-action that allows the laws of supply and demand to set policy, and regulatory efforts that allow corporations to buy, sell, and trade marketable permits (cap and trade).
    • Education, information, and persuasion represent policy mechanisms such as hortatory appeal and capacity building through training, education and technical assistance governments can use as policy instruments.
  77. Describe the policy typologies of Theodore Lowi
    • Distributive programs are those that government provides without regard to limited resources or zero-sum situations. Public education, roads, bridges.
    • Redistributive policies represent a zero-sum proposition where one person or group’s gain is another’s loss. Affirmative action, welfare.
    • Regulatory policy represents the government’s restriction of individual choice to keep conduct from transcending acceptable bounds.
  78. Describe the steps in the policy analysis process
    • Define and analyze the problem involves the description of an unsatisfactory set of conditions for which relief is sought, where it exists and who it effects, its major causes, and how those causes may be affected by policy action.
    • Construct policy alternatives involves building creative approaches to policies of distribution, redistribution, and regulation.
    • Develop evaluative criteria refers to establishing the most suitable for the problem and the alternatives and determining the likely effectiveness, social an political feasibility, or equity of the alternatives.
    • Assessing the alternatives refers to determining of which alternatives are better than others – which is most likely to produce the desired outcome. These range from ethical to cost-benefit analyses.
    • Draw conclusions require a decision as to which policy option is the most desirable given the circumstances and the evaluation criteria.
  79. Describe the specific orientations to policy analysis
    • Scientific involves a search for the truth and a n effort to build theory about policy actions and effects using the scientific method to test hypotheses and theories; policy relevance is less important than advancing knowledge.
    • Professional analysis refers to analyzing policy alternatives for solving public problems by synthesizing research and theory to understand the consequences of policy alternatives; the aim is for objectivity and practical value.
    • Political analysis advocates and supports preferred policies using legal, economic, and political arguments consistent with value positions; it aims to influence the policy debate to realize organizational goals and values.
  80. Public policy reference
    • Kraft, M., & Furlong, S. (2013). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives (4 ed.). Los Angeles: Sage/CQ Press.
  81. Describe a pilot study and its importance
    • The pilot study tests the adequacy of the research design. The entire research plan including data collection and analysis is carried out on a micro scale. The results demonstrate the feasibility and appropriateness of the research design regarding how much time and effort will be needed to collect, compile, and analyze the data.
  82. Described a cross-sectional design
    • Cross-sectional designs measure all relevant variables at one time from surveys, interviews, forms, and secondary data. They represent a snapshot of the situation; people’s interests, attitudes, and behaviors at a particular point in time. The major use if the design is to stimulate additional research or aid in the development of research hypotheses. It is most useful in measuring values on multiple variables, a large group of subjects, and subjects that are geographically dispersed. The design is generally in appropriate for discovering why something happened or establishing causality.
  83. Describe a timeseries design
    • The timeseries design collects data on a single unit or set of subjects and the same variables at frequent and closely space intervals over a relatively long period. As such, the data is able to detect short term changes and long term trends in a variable. This design is useful in establishing a baseline data measure, identifying changes over time, keeping track of trends, forecasting future trends, and program evaluation.  Four types of trends:
    • Long-term trends
    • Cyclical variations
    • Seasonal variation
    • Irregular (random) fluctuations
  84. Describe longitudinal design
    • Longitudinal designs collect data on the same cases for two or more distinct time periods and can reveal changes in individual cases in the periods between data collection. Panel designs are longitudinal designs that collect data on the same individuals each time. These designs are challenged by the difficulty in enlisting a representative sample of the population willing to be interviewed at set intervals over an extended period of time. Subject attrition and experimental mortality over time is common. As well, human subjects are influenced by repeated interviews and observations. Longitudinal designs combine the characteristics of the cross-sectional and timeseries designs
  85. Describe the characteristics of the experimental design
    • In an experimental design, the researcher has control over the research conditions, the assignment of research subjects to groups, and the introduction of the independent variable. Quasi experimental designs lack one or more of these characteristics.
  86. Describe internal validity and its influencers
    • Internal validity refers to the ability of the design to eliminate all factors other than the independent variable as possible explanations of variation in the dependent variable. Internal validity is threatened by:
    • History – events other than the independent variable could have affected the dependent variable.
    • Selection – the way cases are selected for groups or conditions for a program or a study could affect the way they react to the independent variable.
    • Maturation – Natural changes taking place in the units being studied.
    • Statistical regression – Studying a case based on extreme events. Changes may be due to a return to the statistical average rather than the independent variable.
    • Testing effects – a situation in which the initial testing of subjects affects the outcome of the posttest. Instrumentation – the measuring instrument used to collect data changes between the beginning and end of the study.
    • Experimental mortality – people drop out of the study before it is completed. If they are systematically different from those who remain, the results will not be internally valid.
    • Design contamination – When subjects are aware that they are being studied and act differently because of it. Also, the design is contaminated when subjects interact during the study and it influences their behaviors.
  87. Describe external validity and its influencers
    • External validity refers to the design’s ability to produce results that can be generalized beyond the test population. It can be increased by replicating the program in different settings with different personnel and deliberately sampling for heterogeneity to demonstrate that it works for a wide range of different test subjects and the results are this transferable to other groups. It is commonly threatened by:
    • Unique program features – an experimental program in a controlled environment may not easily be duplicated in a natural nonexperimental setting.
    • Effects of selection- subjects in the study area are not representative of others to which we want to apply the results.
    • Effects of setting – a project based in one location or setting may not work well in another setting or location.
    • Effects of history – an event that happened prior to the study or during the study may make the community in which the study takes place unique and thus difficult to generalize the findings to other communities.
    • Effects of testing – external validity is threatened if a pretest affects the subjects’ receptivity to the program.
  88. Describe the elements necessary to claim causality
    • In order to claim causality, there must be a statistical association of the two variables. The variables must occur in a sequential order; independent variable then dependent variable and rivals of the independent variable a causes of the dependent variable must be eliminated. There must also be a theoretical link between the independent and dependent variables.
  89. Describe the characteristics of the classical experimental design
    • RO1 X O2 (Experimental) / RO1       O2 (Control)
    • The classical experimental design is characterized by:
    • Random assignment of experimental and control groups
    • Administration of a pretest
    • Exposure of the experimental group to the treatment (independent variable)
    • Administration of a posttest
    • A measurement of the amount of change in the dependent variable between the pretest and the post test for each group.
  90. Describe the randomized posttest design
    • R X O1 (experimental) / R   O1 (control)
    • The randomized posttest design avoids the possible sensitizing effects of pretesting by eliminating the pretest. It is useful when experimental groups are large enough for the investigator to be confident that they are similar. A pretest is needed for smaller groups.
  91. Describe three quasi-experimental designs
    • Quasi-experimental designs are designs in which one or more of the requirements of the experimental design cannot be met – random assignment to groups, controlled introduction of a treatment.
    • Comparison group pretest post test design: O1 X O2 (experimental) / O1   O2 (control) subjects are not randomly selected by rather by selecting subjects that seem comparable. It is major limitation is its inability to control for selection bias.
    • Interrupted timeseries design: O1 O2 O3 X O5 O6 O7 incorporates an independent variable other than time. It calls for several observations before the introduction of the independent varable which helps demonstrate that the independent variable resulted in the change in the dependent variable that cannot be attributed to long-term trends, cycles, or seasonal variations.  Internal validity threats by maturation, statistical regression, and testing are controlled for. The design does not control for external validity threats.
  92. Describe reliability and its three dimensions
    • Reliability refers to evidence that a measure accurately distinguishes between subjects over time. Reliability has three dimensions:
    • Stability gives the same result when applied to the same phenomenon more than once.
    • Equivalence gives the same result when the measure is applied to the same phenomenon by more than one investigator.
    • Internal consistency is achieved when all items constituting a measure are homogenous and related to the same concept.
  93. Describe operational validity and the one bases of its evidence
    • Operational validity is the evidence that the measure is named correctly and measures what it is intended to measure. Two types of evidence:
    • Content based evidence demonstrates that the operational definition of the measure is relevant and representative of the thing being measures.
    • Criteria based shows that the operational definition is empirically related to the criterion that measures and alternative measure.
  94. Describe nonprobability sampling designs
    • Nonprobability sampling designs are useful for exploratory studies and for the generation of hypotheses for further testing. They are typically cheaper and easier to carry out than probability designs, but investigators cannot accurately estimate population parameters based on nonprobability designs.
    • Convenience sampling involves sampling units that are simply available.
    • Purposive sampling involves the subjective judgment or investigative assumption that the selected unit in the population is somehow representative of the population.
    • Expert sampling, for example, involves sampling persons with known expertise in an area.
    • Quota sampling attempts to structure the sample as a cross-section of the population as a researcher selects a quota of individual unit with defined characteristics in the same proportion as they exist in the population.
    • Snowball sampling is used hen members of a population know or are aware of each other. Each member of the population is asked for the names of other member of the population until no new leads develop. This technique is less expensive than probability sampling and equally as accurate for very small samples at the exploratory stage of an investigation.
  95. Research methods reference
    • O'Sullivan, E., Rassel, G., & Berner, M. (2008). Research Methods for Public Administrators (5th Edition ed.). New York: Pearson.

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