#3 HIST 30-31

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ironmonstar
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218694
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#3 HIST 30-31
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2013-05-09 08:06:59
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The Sixties, Vietnam, Watergate
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  1. Gideon v. Wainwright
    Everyone has a right to a lawyer
  2. Escobedo v. Illinois
    Have right to have council present as their being questioned
  3. Miranda v. Arizona
    Had to be informed of their constitutional rights,
  4. Baker v. Carr
    Tennessee had to redistribute its legislative seats to give citizens in Memphis equal representation. Subsequent deci-sions reinforced the ban on rural overrepresentation as the Court proclaimed that places in all legislative bodies, including the House of Representatives, had to be allocated on the basis of “ people, not land or trees or pastures.” Th e principle of “ one man, one vote” greatly increased the political power of cities at the expense of rural areas; it also involved the Court directly in the reapportionment process, frequently forcing judges to draw up new legislative and congressional districts.
  5. Engle v. Vitale
    Banned School required Prayer
  6. John Birch Society
    extreme anticommunist group, Sought to impeach Chief Justice Earl Warren first modern attack on activist Judges
  7. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Kennedy’s tax and civil rights bills

    signed on July 2, made illegal the segregation of African Americans in public facilities, established an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to lessen racial discrimination in employment, and protected the voting rights of African Americans. An amendment sponsored by segregationists in an eff ort to weaken the bill added gender to the prohibition of discrimination in Title VII of the act; in the future, women’s groups would use the clause to secure government support for greater equality in employment and education.
  8. War on Poverty
    President Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity ( OEO) oversaw programs to help the poor. p. 719

    his January 1964 State of the Union address, LBJ announced, “ Th is administration, today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America.” During the next eight months, Johnson fashioned a comprehen-sive poverty program under the direction of R. Sargent Shriver, Kennedy’s brother- in- law. Th e president added $ 500 million to existing programs to come up with a $ 1 billion eff ort that Congress passed in August 1964.
  9. Great Society
    President Lyndon Johnson’s name for his version of the Demo cratic reform program. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to educa-tion. p. 720
  10. Freedom Summer
  11. Medicare
    The 1965 Medicare Act provided Social Security funding for hospitalization insurance for people over age 65 and the disabled and a volun-tary plan to cover doctor bills paid in part by the federal government. p. 720
  12. Voting Rights Act
    banned literacy tests for voting rights and provided for federal registrars to assure the franchise to minority voters. p. 720
  13. William J. Fulbright
    Johnson’s flimsy justifications— ranging from the need to protect American tourists to a dubious list of sus-pected communists among the rebel leaders— served only to alien-ate liberal critics in the United States, particularly Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman J. William Fulbright, a former Johnson favorite. Th e intervention ended in 1966 with the elec-tion of a conservative government. Senator Fulbright, however, continued his criticism of Johnson’s foreign policy by publishing Th e Arrogance of Power, a biting analysis of the fallacies of con-tainment. Fulbright’s defection symbolized a growing gap between the president and liberal intellectuals; the more LBJ struggled to uphold the Cold War policies he had inherited from Kennedy, the more he found himself under attack from Congress, the media, and the universities.
  14. Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    After a North Vietnamese attack on an American destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964, Congress gave President Lyndon authority in this resolution to use force in Vietnam. p. 725
  15. George Ball
    Th e Joint Chiefs then pressed the president for both unlimited bombing of the North and the aggressive use of American ground forces in the South. In mid- July, Secretary of Defense McNamara recommended sending a hundred thousand combat troops to Vietnam, more than doubling the American forces there. He believed this esca-lation would lead to a “ favorable outcome,” but he also told the president that an additional hundred thousand soldiers might be needed in 1966 and that American battle deaths could rise as high as fi ve hundred a month ( by early 1968, they hit a peak of more than fi ve hundred a week). At the same time, other advisers, most notably Undersecretary of State George Ball, spoke out against military escalation in favor of a political settlement. Warning that the United States was likely to suff er “ national humiliation,” Ball told the president that he had “ serious doubt that an army of westerners can successfully fi ght Orientals in an Asian jungle.”
  16. William Westmoreland
    The search- and- destroy tactics employed by the American commander, General William Westmoreland, proved ill suited to the situation. Th e Vietcong, aided by North Vietnamese regulars, were waging a war of insurgency, avoiding fi xed positions and striking from ambush. In a vain eff ort to destroy the enemy, Westmoreland used superior American fi repower wantonly, devas-tating the countryside, causing many civilian casualties, and driving the peasantry into the arms of the guerrillas. Inevitably, these tactics led to the slaughter of innocent civilians, most notably at the hamlet of My Lai. In March 1968, an American company led by Lieutenant William Calley, Jr., killed more than two hundred unarmed villagers.

    Th e main premise of Westmoreland’s strategy was to wage a war of attrition that would fi nally reach a “ crossover point” when communist losses each month would be greater than the number of new troops they could recruit. He hoped to lure the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese regulars into pitched battles in which American fi repower would infl ict heavy casualties. But soon it was the communists who were deciding where and when the fi ghting would take place, provoking American attacks in remote areas of South Vietnam that favored the defenders and made Westmoreland pay heavily in American lives for the commu-nist losses.
  17. My Lai Massacre
    William Westmoreland military tactics led to the slaughter of innocent civilians, most notably at the hamlet of My Lai. In March 1968, an American company led by Lieutenant William Calley, Jr., killed more than two hundred unarmed villagers.
  18. Free Speech Movement
    Th e fi rst sign of student rebellion came in the fall of 1964 at the prestigious University of California at Berkeley. A small group of radical students resisted university eff orts to deny them a place to solicit volunteers and funds for off - campus causes. Forming the Free Speech movement, they struck back by occupying administration buildings and blocking the arrest of a nonstudent protester. For the next two months the campus was in turmoil
  19. Students for a Democratic Society
    Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcom-ings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of protests before it split apart in the late 1960s. p. 727
  20. Woodstock
    Music became the touchstone of the counterculture. Folksingers such as Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, popular for their songs of social protest in the mid- 1960s, gave way first to rock groups such as the Beatles, whose lyrics were often suggestive of drug use, and then to “ acid rock” as symbolized by the Grateful Dead. The climactic event of the countercul-ture during the decade came at the Woodstock concert at Bethel in upstate New York when 400,000 young people indulged in a three- day festival of rock music, drug experimentation, and public sexual activity.
  21. Watts
    Th e fi rst sign of trouble came in the summer of 1964, when African American teenagers in Harlem and Rochester, New York, rioted. Th e next summer, a massive outburst of rage and destruction swept over the Watts area of Los Angeles as the inhabitants burned buildings and looted stores.
  22. Stokely Carmicheal
    h e civil rights coalition fell apart, a victim of both its legislative success and economic failure. Black militants took over the leadership of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee ( SNCC); they disdained white help and even reversed Martin Luther King’s insistence on nonviolence. Th e SNCC’s new leader, Stokely Carmichael, told blacks they should seize power in those parts of the South where they outnumbered whites. “ I am not going to beg the white man for anything I deserve,” he said, “ I’m going to take it.” Soon his calls for “ black power” became a rallying cry for more militant blacks who advocated the need for African Americans to form “ our own institutions, credit unions, co- ops, political parties” and even write “ our own history.”
  23. Black Panthers
    Huey Newton, one of the founders of the militant Black Panther party, proclaimed, “ We make the statement, quoting from Chairman Mao, that politi-cal power comes through the barrel of a gun.”
  24. Cesar Chavez
  25. National Organization for Women
    (NOW) Founded in 1966, NOW called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. It also championed the legalization of abortion and an equal rights amend-ment to the Constitution. p. 730
  26. Tet Offensive
    In February 1968, the Viet Cong launched a major offensive in the cities of South Vietnam. Although caught by surprise, American and South Vietnam forces quashed this attack. But the Tet offensive was a blow to American public opinion and led President Lyndon Johnson to seek a negoti-ated peace. p. 731
  27. Eugene McCarthy
    Eugene McCarthy, a Democrat from Minnesota, announced he would challenge LBJ for the party’s presidential nomination. Intellectual, cool, and aloof, McCarthy raised the banner of idealism, telling audiences, “ Whatever is morally necessary must be made politically possible.” College students fl ocked to his campaign, shaving their beards and cutting their hair to be “ clean for Gene.” In the New Hampshire primary in early March, the nation’s earliest political test, McCarthy shocked the political experts by coming within a few thousand votes of defeating President Johnson. McCarthy’s strong showing in New Hampshire led Robert Kennedy, who had been weighing the risks in challenging Johnson, to enter the presidential race.
  28. Spiro Agnew
    Republican nomination. At the GOP convention in Miami Beach, Nixon won an easy first- ballot nomination and chose Maryland governor Spiro Agnew as his running mate. Agnew, little known on the national
  29. Moral Majority
    In 1979, the Reverend Jerry Falwell founded the Moral Majority to combat “ amoral liberals,” drug abuse, “ coddling” of criminals, homosexuality, communism, and abortion. The Moral Majority repre-sented the rise of political activism among organized religion’s radical right wing. p. 738
  30. Henry Kissinger
  31. Detente
    President Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger pursued a policy of détente, a French word meaning a relaxation of tension, with the Soviet Union to lessen the possibility of nuclear war in the 1970s. p. 739
  32. Leonid Brezhnev
  33. SALT I
    In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union culminated four years of SALT by signing a treaty limiting the deployment of antiballistic missiles ( ABM) and an agree-ment to freeze the number of offensive missiles for five years. p. 739
  34. Kent Sate
  35. Creep
  36. Daniel Ellsberg
  37. Pentagon Papers
  38. Watergate
    A break- in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break- in and subsequent cover- up forced President Richard Nixon to resign in 1974. p. 741
  39. John Dean
  40. John Mitchell
  41. Judge John Sirica
  42. Bob Haldeman and John Ehrlichman
  43. Sam Ervin
  44. Leon Jaworski
  45. Gerald Ford
  46. October War
  47. OPEC
    cartel of oil- exporting nations. p. 742
  48. Roe v. Wade
    The 1973 Supreme Court decision that women have a constitutional right to abortion during the early stages of pregnancy. p. 746
  49. Equal Rights Amendment
    A break- in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break- in and subsequent cover- up forced President Richard Nixon to resign in 1974. p. 741
  50. Sandra Day O'Conner
  51. Stonewall Riots
  52. Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978
  53. American Indian Movement
  54. Camp David Accords
    In 1978, President Jimmy Carter mediated a peace agreement between the leaders of Egypt and Israel at Camp David. In 1979, Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty based on the accords. p. 751
  55. Iranian Hostage Crisis
    In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty- three Americans hostage for over a year. The hostages were released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president. p. 751

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